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研究生:胡氏青娥
研究生(外文):Ho Thi ThanhNga
論文名稱:在台越南人的族群空間與社群建構:台南的個案
論文名稱(外文):Space, Ethnic Places and Vietnamese Community-building in Tainan, Taiwan
指導教授:蔣為文蔣為文引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wi-vun Taiffalo Chiung
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:台灣文學系
學門:人文學門
學類:台灣語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:103
語文別:英文
論文頁數:314
中文關鍵詞:移民越南移民越南外籍配偶越南外勞族群認同空間地景社群
外文關鍵詞:MigrationVietnamese immigrantVietnamese spouseVietnamese workerEthnic identitySpaceLandscape and Community
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從 20 世紀的後期乃至 21 世紀的今天,國際移民在全球化浪潮中所展現出來的社會、經濟、與政治意涵更是遠超過之前幾世紀中人口移動所產生的效應。在台灣移民的新浪潮在過去二十年多已迅速滲入並影響到台灣的社會, 創造台灣更多元文化的面貌。在台灣各地出現了許多東南亞新移民的消費空間與文化地景。本論文選擇台南個案為田野場域,以深度訪談 88 位越南勞工與越南配偶,從此進行研究資料的蒐集及分析,主要探討的是在台越南人如何通過各種不同的實踐形式,形成一個在特定時空下,可以集體分享、認同與互助的社群網路,並將此社會網路定義為越南社群。
首先,這項研究也將從跨國移民的角度來涉及越南移民的跨國行為及其文化建構、族群認同與調適過程。跨國移民在本研究中的故事說明了越南配偶在適應本地社會的過程中之能動性。本論文發現的是:在過度到一個新的社會文化環境中,移民女性在認同上面臨台灣社會的影響下,必須予以協商與調整。在面對不同的困境下,越南移民女性透過各種戰略來肯定在家庭其地位與角色。除了適應台灣社會之外,越南配偶也堅持保護其族群認同,以保有環節自己的根,而在重寫他們的社群認同。
本論文圍繞空間/地景的核心概念,突顯了在台灣政治、經濟、文化、社會的個種因素的影響下,越南人已經使用個種不同的空間戰略,以保護及建設在台越南人的族群空間與社群建構,形成在台灣社會內部的越南社群。第一,本文以台南公園這個空間為研究,去分析它的形成脈絡,詮釋這個空間對於越南外籍勞工的意義,討論它對都市空間,乃至社會產生的影響。本論文將指出,儘管身為外籍勞工的跨國移民,收到國家政策與法規的高度規範,與都市的關係在結構上是被限定的,然而從微觀來看,越南勞工從個人到集體,通過公共空間的互動,形塑出一個社群的空間。第二,本研究探討在台南越南消費族群地景的形成過程、發展狀況及分佈地圖。本研究指出族群地景與族群消費空間已構成與帶來了越南移民協商自我認同的場域。尤其越南配偶所經營的餐飲店做為不同身份(移民或移工)的越南族群集聚的社會空間,在族群認同形構上又有特殊的意義。
Since the late 20th century, the process of globalization, particularly in terms of capitalism, has led to the creation of many international networks of migrants. In Taiwan, the new wave of immigration over the past two decades has rapidly changed the landscape of Taiwanese society, creating a more multicultural picture. Framing ethnic community-building in terms of place-making, the dissertation studies the formation of Vietnamese immigrant community in Tainan, Taiwan. The dissertation demonstrates that space/place is a central and persistent component of Vietnamese community-building. This study clearly indicates, under the impact of political, economic, cultural, social factors of Taiwan, that the Vietnamese have used unique spatial strategies to protect their community and form Vietnamese community inside Taiwanese society.
This study contributes to our understanding of the experience of transnational migration and multicultural integration in a society of immigrants. The stories of transnational migration in the present study illustrate immigrant women’s agency in adapting to Taiwanese society. The immigrant women’s transition to a new socio-cultural environment has important implications for their identities. One important insight in the study of marriage migrants is about how people with different historical experiences and cultural behaviors can develop from different communities to a community of differences. Depending on each condition, circumstance, and setback, many immigrant women have suitable adjustment strategies to host society. However, it is not means that, they simply abandon their homeland identity. In contrast, Vietnamese spouses use a wide range of strategies to reaffirm elements of their cultural identities to maintain links to their roots while negotiating the values and norms of their host societies in rewriting their identities.
This dissertation contributes to our understanding of Vietnamese community-building in Tainan, Taiwan. The first, the dissertation explores the relationship between the public space and formation of Vietnamese community in Taiwan’s urban landscape through investigating how Vietnamese immigrants’ social maps are structured and negotiated in relation to public space. By linking spatial experience to ethnic community, the dissertation is able to offer alternative maps of people and places that revise and invigorate the common views of the diasporic experience and the formation of ethnoscape in urban landscape. The secondly, dissertation analyzed the relationship between ethnic business places and a sense of community. The development of ethnic places also provides area also provides a connecting point for a community – a place of places where information can be obtained or disseminated in both formal and informal ways. Certain types of business, such as coffee shops, restaurants, pubs, karaoke shop which distributed all also serve as places for people to get together, warming ethnic characteristics. These ethnic places also help to organize ethnic networks into a structure of social relations. Through cultural activities, ethnic business activities, ethnic business places, the Vietnamese have not only consolidated and built a community network, but also formed cultural regions and commercial areas that have unique Vietnamese characteristics. The ethnic places that have been created by Vietnamese serve as cultural zones and business landscape, generating and stringing identity among Vietnamese immigrants in Tainan, Taiwan.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
論文摘要 I
ABSTRACT III
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS V
TABLE OF CONTENTS VII
LIST OF TABLES XII
LIST OF FIGURES XIII
LIST OF IMAGES XIV
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Motivation and purpose of the study 1
1.2 Objective of the research and research questions 3
1.3 Literature review 4
1.4 Theoretical framework 7
1.4.1 Community: What is it and how do we study it? 7
1.4.2 Place/ Space and Community 10
1.4.3 Ethnic economy and community 14
1.4.4 Identity negotiation and indigenization 19
1.5 Brief description of Tainan case 23
1.6 Research methods 25
1.6.1 Qualitative method 25
1.6.2 Research procedures 27
1.7 Organization of chapters 33
CHAPTER TWO OVERVIEW OF MIGRATION IN TAIWAN AND VIETNAM 36
2.1 International migration in contemporary Vietnam 36
2.1.1 Vietnamese refugee immigration after the Vietnam War 38
2.1.2 Vietnamese international labour migration 42
2.1.3 Vietnamese transnational marriage migration 48
2.2 Migration in Taiwan: History, State policy and the contemporary status 53
2.2.1 History of migration in Taiwan 53
2.2.2 Transnational migration in Taiwan in recent decades 59
2.3 Summary 70
CHAPTER THREE NEGOTIATION OF GENDER ROLES AND THE INDIGENIZATION PROCESS IN A HOST SOCIETY 72
3.1 Role and status of women in Vietnam 73
3.1.1 The role and status of Vietnam women in history 73
3.1.2 The role and status of Vietnamese women in contemporary Vietnam 78
3.2 Negotiating gender roles of Vietnamese spouses in Taiwan 81
3.2.1 Male breadwinner model 83
3.2.2 Dual breadwinner 95
3.2.3 Working wives and non-productive husbands 102
3.2.4 Families that experienced misfortune 105
3.3 Ethnic identity and indigenization in a host society 113
3.3.1 Vietnamese 114
3.3.2 Taiwanese 117
3.3.3 Others 118
3.4 Summary 124
CHAPTER FOUR 125
TOGETHER IN PUBLIC SPACE 125
4.1 Emergence of Vietnamese ethnoscape in Tainan Park 126
4.1.1 Geographical location and traffic network structure 126
4.1.2 The Southeast Asian ethno-consumptive space 128
4.1.3 The emergence of Vietnamese ethnoscape in Tainan Park 132
4.2 Strategies for negotiating public space 135
4.2.1 Spatial-temporal strategies of migrant workers 136
4.2.2 Hidden space strategies of Vietnamese spouse 144
4.2.3 The dating place: the “private” in a public space 148
4.2.4 A space pattern for the maintenance of ethnic networks 156
4.3 Politics of space: Cultural distinction and ethnic conflict 160
4.3.1 Ethnic conflict among Southeast Asian workers 161
4.3.2 Impression of local residents on immigrants 165
4.4 Summary 174
CHAPTER FIVE LANDSCAPE, STRATEGIES AND BUSINESS CAPITAL 175
5.1 Landscape of Vietnamese ethnic economy in Tainan, Taiwan 175
5.1.1 Statistics data of ethnic businesses in Tainan 176
5.1.2 Map of Vietnamese ethno-consumptive shops distribution 178
5.2 Type and strategies of Vietnamese business model in Tainan, Taiwan 184
5.2.1 Types of Vietnamese business model 184
5.2.2 Business strategy of Vietnamese shops in Tainan 188
5.3 Managing small ethnic business capital 197
5.3.1 Human capital 197
5.3.2 Financial capital 205
5.3.3 Social capital 210
5.4 Summary 220
CHAPTER SIX ETHNIC ECONOMY AND A SENSE OF COMMUNITY 222
6.1 Cultural, symbolic communication and a sense of community identity 223
6.1.1 Place, symbolic communication and a sense of “home” 223
6.1.2 Food cultural and a sense of ethnic identity 229
6.2 Creating an ethnic market: information, labor and capital 235
6.3 Connecting ethnic social network in diaspora 241
6.3.1 Tontine as bonds of trust 242
6.3.2 Ethnic owners as leader of ethnic community network 254
6.3.3 Conflict and classification in the community 259
6.4 Summary 270
CHAPTER SEVEN 272
CONCLUSION 272
7.1 Migration, identity negotiation and ethnicity maintain 274
7.2 Urban landscape and a sense of community 277
7.3 Ethnic business, ethnic place and community-building 279
7.4 Migration and Vietnamese community 281
REFERENCES 286
APPENDIXES 299
Appendix 1: Demographic questionnaire 299
Appendix 2: Interview guide for Vietnamese spouse 300
Appendix 3: Interview guide for Vietnamese shop owner 302
Appendix 4: Interview guide for Vietnamese worker 304
Appendix 5: Characteristic of Vietnamese spouses in the dissertation 307
Appendix 6: Characteristic of Vietnamese workers in dissertation 309
Appendix 7: Statistic of Tainan downtown population density 310
Appendix 8: Types of Vietnamese shops in Tainan 311
Appendix 9: Classification of Vietnamese shops 314

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