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研究生:莊若蘭
研究生(外文):Jo-LanChuang
論文名稱:記憶策略對於ADHD兒童在價值導向記憶表現上之影響
論文名稱(外文):The Influence of Strategy on Performance of Value-Directed Memory Task in Children with ADHD
指導教授:黃惠玲黃惠玲引用關係林君昱林君昱引用關係
指導教授(外文):Huei-Lin HuangChun-Yu Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:行為醫學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:76
中文關鍵詞:價值導向記憶注意力缺陷/過動衝動疾患記憶策略厭惡延遲
外文關鍵詞:Value-directed memoryADHDStrategydelay aversion
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當記憶目標超過自己所能承載的記憶容量時,個體就要選擇記憶對自己較重要的目標訊息,此種能力表現在本研究中稱為價值性導向記憶(Value-directed memory)。本研究對象為具ADHD兒童及其同年齡對照組正常兒童。研究目的在於操弄訊息價值程度的差異,以觀察受試者在針對記憶目標字詞進行再認作業時,行為表現是否會偏向高價值的字詞有較高的正確再認比率。過去已有許多研究支持行為層面上,記憶表現的確會具有對特定價值程度字詞有較高的回憶正確率,且正常對照組受試者在表現上會優於ADHD組,在更進一步比較發現ADHD組中診斷上是屬於過動/衝動表現行或混合表現型(以下簡稱ADHD-C’組)的表現會低於正常對照組,而不專注表現型(以下簡稱ADHD-I組)則與正常對照組表現無顯著差異。本研究之目的在於操弄訊息價值程度的差異,以觀察參與者在針對記憶目標字詞進行自由回憶(free recall)作業時,行為表現是否會偏向高價值的字詞有較高的回憶正確比率,並且為何不同表現型之ADHD兒童在記憶的選擇性上會有所不同此外也探究給予兒童指定策略是否可以改善價值導向記憶。本研究對象為具ADHD兒童(ADHD-C’組34位與ADHD-I組25位)及其同年齡對照組正常兒童(55位),共114位。研究結果顯示在未指定策略情境下三組受試者皆有不同程度的記憶選擇性,但ADHD-C’組的記憶選擇性明顯較正常對照組與ADHD-I組低,而ADHD-I組則與正常對照組無顯著差異。進一步探究組間差異之原因,結果顯示ADHD-C’組回憶出的高價值訊息較照常對照組少,而回憶出的低價值訊息並未比正常對照組多,反映在記憶選擇性上的表現可能受限於未回憶出與其他組相當之高價值訊息。此外,在給予指定策略後三組受試者的記憶選擇性皆有所提升,且ADHD-C’組更縮短與其他組表現的差異,達到與其他兩組無顯著差異的表現。本研究貢獻除釐清ADHD-C’組在價值導向記憶上表現較差之原因為回憶較少高價值訊息,而非回憶較多低價值訊息,更進一步針對每位受試者的記憶容量給予記憶策略,強化對高價值訊息之注意力資源分配,成功提升三組兒童的價值導向記憶表現,更縮小ADHD-C組與其他組之間的差異。本研究發現要探討ADHD-C’組在價值導向記憶作業上的表現除需考量其注意力分配上的缺損,後設記憶功能不足以及厭惡延遲的動機問題也可能是影響因素。
When the amount of information people should keep in mind is over ones memory capacity, they would remember those more important information selectively. In this study, the ability to memorize things selectively is called “value-directed memory”. Recent studies found that performance in value-directed memory task is different between the subtypes of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity/Impulsivity Disorder (ADHD). The goal of this research is to study on the cognitive process lead to the difference in children with ADHD. There are 114 children in age of 10-12 participated in this research, which include children with ADHD inattention type, ADHD combined type, and typical children. Participants would assign randomly to two different conditions (directed strategy/non-directed strategy). In non-directed strategy condition, participants did the valued-directed memory task on their own. In directed strategy condition, participants were taught the strategy to perform well in task. The results suggest that, in non-directed strategy condition, children with ADHD combined type did worse than children with ADHD inattention type, which replicated the findings of recent studies. In directed strategy condition, there is no difference in performance within those groups. The contribution of this research is not only clarified the cognitive process of value-directed memory but also find an efficient strategy can improve the performance of children with ADHD combined type in the task.
中文摘要………………………………………………………………………………III
英文摘要………………………………………………………………………………V
誌謝……………………………………………………………………………………VIII
目錄……………………………………………………………………………………IX
表目錄…………………………………………………………………………………XII
圖目錄…………………………………………………………………………………XIII
第一章、緒論…………………………………………………………………………..1
第一節、注意力缺失/過動疾患概論 …………………………………………….1
第二節、價值導向記憶……………………………………………………………3
壹、價值導向記憶作業……………………………………………………3
貳、價值導向記憶心理歷程………………………………………………4
參、ADHD兒童與價值導向記憶…………………………………………4
肆、價值導向記憶的腦神經機制…………………………………………5
伍、價值導向記憶的學習效果……………………………………………6
第三節、注意力缺失/過動疾患亞型間神經心理功能差異……………………...7
壹、執行功能系統之差異…………………………………………………7
貳、後設認知系統之差異…………………………………………………8
第四節、研究目的…………………………………………………………………10
第五節、研究假設與預期結果……………………………………………………10
第二章、研究方法……………………………………………………………………..11
第一節、研究對象…………………………………………………………………11
壹、樣本來源………………………………………………………………11
貳、樣本質性概述與篩選標準……………………………………………12
參、人口學變項統計………………………………………………………13
第二節、研究工具…………………………………………………………………13
壹、中文刺激材料挑選與實驗電腦化設計………………………………13
貳、刺激呈現與記錄反應的設備…………………………………………15
參、干擾性行為評量-家長版 …………………………………………….15
肆、魏氏兒童智力測驗第四版……………………………………………15
第三節、研究流程…………………………………………………………………17
第四節、實驗設計…………………………………………………………………18
壹、二因子受試者間設計…………………………………………………18
貳、實驗程序………………………………………………………………19
第五節、統計方法…………………………………………………………………23
壹、分析資料來源…………………………………………………………23
貳、統計分析方法…………………………………………………………24
參、 極端值…………………………………………………………………25
第三章、研究結果……………………………………………………………………26
第一節、各組回憶表現概述………………………………………………………26
壹、價值導向記憶作業各組平均表現……………………………………26
貳、序列位置效果…………………………………………………………26
第二節、價值導向記憶表現之受試者組間差異…………………………………27
壹、整體回憶表現之受試者組間差異……………………………………27
貳、整體回憶表現之實驗情境間差異……………………………………28
參、各價值區間回憶表現之受試組者內差異……………………………31
肆、各價值分數回憶表現之受試者組間差異……………………………33
伍、回憶順序平均價值之受試者組間差異………………………………35
陸、學習效果之受試者組間差異…………………………………………36
第四章、討論 …………………………………………………………………………38
第一節、研究結果摘要……………………………………………………………38
第二節、研究結果討論……………………………………………………………39
第三節、研究限制…………………………………………………………………42
第四節、研究結論與未來方向……………………………………………………42
參考文獻 ………………………………………………………………………………44
附錄……………………………………………………………………………………50
附錄一、實驗採用之中文刺激材料 ……………………………………………50
附錄二、電訪記錄單 ……………………………………………………………65
附錄三、實驗指導語 ……………………………………………………………66
附錄四、結構性晤談記錄單 ……………………………………………………70
附錄五、整體記憶表現之二因子變異數分析(單純主要效果摘要)……………74
附錄六、DmDx程式編碼………………………………………………………...75

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