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研究生:張家誠
研究生(外文):Jia-ChengChang
論文名稱:行為型隱性設計知識轉移模式
論文名稱(外文):The Mode for Transferring of Behavioral Tacit Design Knowledge
指導教授:陸定邦陸定邦引用關係孔憲法孔憲法引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ding-Bang LuhShiann-Far Kung
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:創意產業設計研究所
學門:設計學門
學類:綜合設計學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:英文
論文頁數:83
中文關鍵詞:隱性知識轉移行為型設計知識臨摹式教學教學實驗.
外文關鍵詞:Tacit knowledge transferBehavioral design knowledgeLinn and Mu teaching MethodTeaching experiments.
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知識可概分為顯性知識與隱性知識。設計係一種以隱性知識來創造顯性知識的過程,隱性知識轉移是學習設計知識和技能的關鍵步驟。設計知識可概分成思維型與行為型二大類,設計思維需透過設計行為才能表達彰顯,行為型知識為思維型知識外顯的基礎。本文以行為型設計知識為主要研究對象,探討隱性設計知識之轉移過程,指出行為型隱性設計知識的轉移有三個不同的學習層次-「(學)習、(貫)通、創(新)」-學習者會在「觀察、模仿、練習、調整、修正」的迴圈中進行,以產生自我領會的能力,欲向上提升層面,需要加速在知識轉移迴圈內之循環速度,以產生提升動能,而「先摹後臨」係可有效提升迴圈循環速度之「加速器」或「催化劑」,差異的先前學習經驗則有可能成為妨礙循環加速的影響因子。
行為型設計知識相關課程中,以《表現技法》最為關鍵,是一種領會、把握並重組經驗的學習過程,具有呈現思維、交流構想、確認細節等諸多用途,此課程知識的學習同時涉及顯性知識和隱性技能二種屬性內涵,具有「因人制宜」特殊性,在設計知識轉移過程中需要依照各人生心理條件做個別調整與修正,方能產生融會貫通的學習效果。本研究以《設計表現技法》課程為教學實驗平台,六十位大一學生為測試對象,分為實驗組與控制組,將「先摹後臨」之「加速器」教學方式導入實驗組,而控制組則採一般觀摩式教學,根據七位外部專業評審之客觀評分數據,檢驗兩組學生之學習成效。統計分析結果顯示,實驗組學生的學習成效明顯優於控制組,「先摹後臨」在行為型隱性設計知識轉移中,具有加速轉移效果。此外,沒有先前接觸相關設計知識內容的學生之轉移成效比曾經習過者更為顯著,差異的先前經驗可視為影響加速器功能運作之阻礙因子。

Knowledge can be broadly categorized into explicit knowledge and tacit knowledge. Design is a explicit knowledge creation process by using tacit knowledge. A key step of learning design knowledge is the ability of tacit knowledge transferring. Design knowledge can be generally category into two main types, “Thinking-oriented” and “behavior-oriented”. Behavioral knowledge is the based foundation of thinking knowledge, which means the expression of design thinking requires the assistance of design behavior. This study focuses on behavioral design knowledge, and discusses the transfer process of tacit knowledge. The behavioral tacit knowledge transfer is with three levels of learning - Learning, Comprehending, and Creating.” Learners will be able to generate the ability of self-understanding by implement the transfer cycle repeatedly, which the cycle is Observation, Imitation, practice, adjustment, and refinement.” Meanwhile there will be a requirement of enhancing kinetic energy if the learners want a ability level up, which is by accelerating the repeat speed of the knowledge transfer cycle. The Imitation after Copy method can effectively speed up the booster or activator of transfer cycle. However, learners' prior learning experiences are almost certainly able to be the impact elements of hindering speed up the cycle.
The Design Sketch plays the most critical role in behavioral design knowledge related courses. Behavioral design knowledge is a learning, comprehending, and experiences reconstructing process, which with multiple functions such as thinking presentation, idea communication, and details confirmation and so on. Learning knowledge from this kind of courses involves both explicit knowledge and tacit skills at the same time, as well as with the particularity on “self-differences”. By the particularity on self-differences, here it means the transferring process of design knowledge acquired adjustment and refinement according to each individual's physiologic and psychology condition. So that individuals is able to mastering the learning. The experiment was took place in Design Sketch course, which the test subject was sixty freshmen who were divided into “experimental group” and “control groups”. The experiment content was testing the Linn after Mu teaching method on experimental group, and had the control group be tested with general observation teaching method. The final inspection of these two groups of students' learning outcome was evaluated by seven design experts. Turns out the students from experimental group had a significant better learning outcome than the students from control group according to the final statistical analysis. This result proves the hypothesis that the Linn after Mu has the boosting effect on behavioral tacit knowledge transfer. Besides, students without design relevant knowledge have a way more success on knowledge transferring than that had already learned knowledge of design in advance. In this study we can claim that learners' prior learning experiences are able to be the impact elements of hindering speed up the cycle.

中文摘要................................................................................................... I
Abstract.................................................................................................... II
誌 謝………………………………………………………………....IV
Table of Contents......................................................................................V
List of Tables.............................................................................................VII
List of Figures..........................................................................................VIII

1 Introduction…………..…………………………………………………..1
1.1 Research Background............................................................................1
1.2 Research Motivation…………………..................................................4
1.3 Research Objectives...............................................................................7
1.4 Research Framework ............................................................................9

2 Literature Review………..……………………………………………...10
2.1 Knowledge Definition ....................................................................10
2.1.1 Types of Knowledge………………………………………….12
2.2 The Definition of tacit knowledge..................................................14
2.2.1 Features of tacit knowledge………………………..………...16
2.2.2 Levels of tacit knowledge……………………………………18
2.2.3 Classification of Tacit knowledge………………….………..19
2.3 Knowledge Transfer….....................................................................20
2.3.1 Knowledge transfer approach………………….…….……..21
2.3.2 Knowledge Transfer Process………………….…………….23
2.3.3 Knowledge Transfer Mode………………………………….24
2.3.4 Tacit Knowledge Transfer…………………....…………….29
2.4 The definition of design knowledge……………………………30
2.5 Tacit and explicit design knowledge…………………………...32
2.6 Summary……………………………………………………….…35

3 Behavioral design knowledge transfer mode……….…………..…38
3.1 The Concept of Behavioral Design Knowledge Transfer...............38
3.2 Loops of Tacit Design Knowledge Transfer….………..…………40
3.3 Behavioral Tacit Design Knowledge Transfer Model....................41

4 Experiment Design and Research hypotheses..…..……..……………44
4.1 Design Knowledge transfer application…………..………………44
4.2 Design Sketch evaluation…………………..………………..……45
4.3 Experiment Design…………………………………………….…..46
4.4 Research hypotheses……………………………………………...48
4.5 Experiment participants…………………………………………..48
4.6 Instructional Step…………..…………………………………….49
4.7 Test………..…………………………………………………..….50
4.8 Evaluation standard……………..……………………………….50
4.9 Analysis Tool…..………………………………………………..52

5 Analysis and Result………………………………………..…………53
5.1 Transfer achievement of Perspective Accuracy………..…….….53
5.2 Transfer achievement of Line Stability……………………..…..54
5.3 Transfer achievement of Form Expressivity………………...….55
5.4 Cognitive Survey for Individual's Awareness about Design
Knowledge after Transferring…………………………...…57
5.5 Summary……………………………………………………….59
6 Conclusion & Suggestion …………………………………………….60
6.1 Conclusion..…………………………………………………….60
6.2 Research Suggestion…………………………………………..62
References................................................................................................64
Appendices……………………………………………………………..78

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