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研究生:邱永興
研究生(外文):Yung-Hsing Chiu
論文名稱:戶外背包重心高度對跨越障礙物之生物力學影響
論文名稱(外文):The Biomechanical Effect of Backpack COM Location during Outdoor Obstacle Crossing
指導教授:陳五洲陳五洲引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wu-Chou Chen
口試委員:黃長福邱文信楊世偉涂瑞洪
口試委員(外文):Chen-Fu HuangWen-Shinn ChiuSai-Wei YangJui-Hung Tu
口試日期:2015-05-22
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立體育大學
系所名稱:體育研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:專業科目教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:152
中文關鍵詞:壓力中心傾斜角度能量需求步態穩定性傷害
外文關鍵詞:COPInclination AngleEnergy DemandGait StabilityInjury
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背負行走是登山健行過程中常見且重要的基本能力,背包的打包一直是行前相當重要的工作。本研究藉由探究不同背包重心高度對跨越障礙物之生物力學動作參數的影響情形,以提供背包打包策略建議。受試者為16位健康成年男子(年齡:25.5 ± 5.4 歲;體重:70.3 ± 7.8 公斤;身高:1.73 ± 0.04 公尺),分別背負四種不同背包重心位置(無負重,第1胸椎、第7胸椎與第1腰椎高度)之背包,進行跨越三種高度(20、30與40 %腿長)之障礙物動作;並以Vicon624 T40動作捕捉系統與2塊Kistler測力板,同步進行資料收集。所得參數使用二因子重複量數MANOVA進行考驗。結果發現:一、在整體重心位移活動度的表現上,各背包重心高度間均無顯著差異;但第1胸椎高度在整體趨勢上有較小重心軌跡位移的活動度。二、第7胸椎與第1胸椎背包重心高度的最大重心-壓力中心右傾角度,顯著小於未負重之狀況;最大左傾角則是所有負重時均顯著增加。另外;最大後傾角所有負重狀況均出現顯著比無負重時角度還小的狀況。三、跟隨腳的關節作用力矩峰值在站立早期中,膝關節屈曲、髖與膝關節內收等力矩峰值,在所有負重時均顯著高於無負重狀態;在站立晚期,髖關節屈曲、踝關節蹠屈、髖與膝關節內收、踝關節內旋等力矩峰值,發現有負重時均顯著高於無負重時;且踝關節蹠屈與膝關節內收力矩峰值的第1腰椎高度均顯著高於第1胸椎。本研究建議,背包重心設定在身體第1胸椎高度,在負重跨越障礙物過程中可以節省較多的能量需求,且對跨越步態動作具有相對較低的傷害風險。將背包重心位置設定在第7胸椎高度時,則能夠帶來最佳的步態穩定性。對於下肢關節傷害的預防觀點上,第1腰椎位置顯然是最不適合的打包策略選擇。對於戶外健行的背包重心位置設定,應依環境、路徑狀況而調整背包重心位置,達到最佳的身體動作模式。
The ability of load carriage walking over varying terrain during hiking or mountain climbing is common and vital. The backpack packing is important before starting the activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different backpack load placements on biomechanical gait parameters. Sixteen healthy male adults (age: 25.5 ± 5.4 yrs; BW: 70.3 ± 7.8 kg; BH: 1.73 ± 0.04 m) were recruited to carry a backpack loaded with 4 different COM placements (unloaded, 1st thoracic vertebra, 7th thoracic vertebra, 1st lumbar vertebra) to step over obstacle under 3 different height conditions (20 %LL, 30 %LL, 40 %LL) separately. The kinematic and GRF data were collected by the Vicon624 T40 motion analysis system and 2 Kistler forceplates synchronously. Dependent measures were analyzed with two-way repeated MANOVA. The results were as following: 1.For comparisons of ROM of systematic center of mass, no significant differences were found between backpack COM placements, but an overall trend with smaller value for 1st thoracic vertebra location. 2.The maximal right COM-COP inclination angles of 1st and 7th thoracic vertebra location were smaller than unloaded condition. In addition, the maximal left inclination angles for all loaded conditions were lager than unloaded condition. However, there was a significant smaller maximal posterior angle while loading carriage compared with unloaded condition. 3.In early stance phase, there were significant larger peak joint moments of trailing leg for knee flexion moment, hip and knee adduction moment on loading carriage than unloaded condition. In late stance phase, there were significant larger peak values for hip flexion moment, ankle dorsi-flexion moment, hip & knee adduction moment, and ankle internal rotation moment on loading carriage than unloaded condition, and 1st lumbar vertebra location was significant greater than 1st thoracic vertebra location for ankle dorsi-flexion moment and knee adduction moment. These findings suggested that setting backpack COM location at 1st thoracic vertebra level can save more energy demand and exert lower injury risk during obstacle crossing. While packing setting with 7th thoracic vertebra level during obstacle crossing, it produces preferable gait stability. From the viewpoint of injury prevention, the 1st lumbar vertebra level is the most unsuitable location. When hiking outdoors, hikers should adjust their backpack COM displacement according to their specific demand of environment and route condition to reach the best body motion pattern.
第壹章 緒論 1
第一節 前言 1
第二節 研究目的 6
第三節 研究假設 7
第四節 研究範圍與限制 8
第五節 操作性名詞定義 10
第貳章 文獻探討 15
第一節 背包步態相關研究 16
第二節 跨越障礙物步態相關研究 20
第三節 步態能量相關研究 24
第四節 步態平衡穩定相關研究 26
第五節 負重傷害相關研究 30
第六節 文獻探討結論 32
第參章 研究方法 33
第一節 研究對象 34
第二節 實驗設備與流程 35
第三節 生物力學分析模型 39
第四節 資料處理 55
第肆章 背包重心高度對一般步態重心參數之影響 57
第一節 資料分析與統計方法 58
第二節 結果 61
第三節 討論 68
第四節 結論與建議 73
第伍章 背包重心高度對跨越障礙物步態重心參數之影響 74
第一節 資料分析與統計方法 75
第二節 結果 77
第三節 討論 92
第四節 結論與建議 96
第陸章 背包重心高度對跨越障礙物步態下肢關節動作參數之影響 97
第一節 資料分析與統計方法 99
第二節 結果 101
第三節 討論 134
第四節 結論與建議 137
參考文獻 138
附錄一 標誌點設定位置 150
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