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研究生:楊舒涵
研究生(外文):Shu-Han Yang
論文名稱:酵素處理輔助熱水萃取金桔酚類化合物與成分鑑定
論文名稱(外文):Enzymatic Treatments Assisted Hot Water Extraction of Phenolic Components From Calamondin and Its Identification
指導教授:駱錫能
指導教授(外文):Shyi-Neng Lou
口試委員:邱思魁蔡震壽邱一鳴黃中宜
口試委員(外文):Tze-Kuei ChiouJenn-Shou TsaiE-Mean ChiuChung-Yi Huang
口試日期:2015-03-27
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立宜蘭大學
系所名稱:食品科學系碩士班
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:111
中文關鍵詞:金桔LC−PDA−ESI−MS酵素輔助萃取酚類化合物
外文關鍵詞:calamondinLC−PDA−ESI−MSenzyme−assisted extractphenolic compounds
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:3
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  • 下載下載:9
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金桔(Citrus mitis Blanco)是屬於小柑橘類水果,常做為健康飲品或生鮮食用,其含有豐富的酚類化合物,且被認為是具有生理活性的主要成分。因此,本研究擬建立以酵素輔助熱水萃取金桔酚類化合物的最適條件,以提升酚類化合物的釋出量,並鑑定金桔中所含有的酚酸及類黃酮化合物,瞭解萃取後成份之變化,以作為後續金桔加工利用之參考。
本研究以宜蘭縣礁溪鄉所產之未成熟金桔為材料,將整顆金桔冷凍乾燥,研磨成粉末,分別以Celluclast® 1.5L, Pectinex® Ultra SP−L和Viscozyme® L三種酵素,在不同酵素基質比(E/S 0.02, 0.05,0.1 和0.5),不同溫度(40, 45, 50 和55oC),不同反應時間(1, 1.5, 3,
6, 12, 24和48小時)以及不同環境酸鹼值(pH值 4.0, 4.8和5.6)的條件下,進行水解反應,再經過熱水萃取後,探討其總多酚含量的變化,進而選取最適條件,再進行LC−PDA−ESI−MS 分析鑑定,探討酵素輔助熱水萃取前後,對於未成熟金桔熱水萃取液中酚類組成之影響。結果顯示,酵素處理的最適條件為利用Viscozyme® L,在E/S 0.5、pH 值 4.8,50oC 下,反應48 小時後,再以熱水萃取所獲得的總多酚含量為最高,達
2622 ± 150 mg gallic acid equivalents/100g dry calamondin,較未經酵素處理之控制組總多酚含量,明顯提升83%。進一步以LC/MS 分析鑑定未成熟金桔熱水萃取物的酚類組成,依沖提先後順序分別含有: Vicenin−2 、Apigenin−8−C−neohesperidoside 、
Chrysoeriol−7−O−neohesperidoside 、3,5−di−C−−glucopyranosylphloretin (DGPP) 、Hesperetin−7−O−rutinoside (Hesperidin)、Hesperetin−7−O−neohesperidoside(Neohesperidin)、3,4,5,6,7,8−Hexamethoxyflavone (Nobiletin)和4,5,6,7,8−Pentamethoxyflavone (Tangeretin)等8 個類黃酮衍生物,整體而言,金桔水萃液中以Flavanone 衍生物以及
Hydroxycinnamic acid 衍生物為多,主要是以C−醣苷鍵形式存在,其中較為顯著的7 個類黃酮衍生物含量多寡依序分別為DGPP (2335 ± 22 mg /100g dry calamondin)、Vicenin−2 (637 ± 21 mg /100g dry calamondin)、Apigenin−8−C−neohesperidoside (468 ±
22 mg /100g dry calamondin)、Neohesperidin (143 ± 6mg /100g dry calamondin)、Hesperidin (125 ± 6 mg /100g dry calamondin)、Nobiletin (43 ± 5 mg /100g dry calamondin)和Tangeretin (10 ± 1 mg /100g dry calamondin)。經過酵素處理後,Hesperidin 和Neohesperidin 含量下降,其配糖基Hesperetin 的含量則增加。除此之外,Vicenin−2 含量增加,Apigenin−8−C−neohesperidoside 在酵素處理前後沒有明顯的變化,而DGPP、Nobiletin 和 Tangeretin 的含量則均有減少。
Calamondin (Citrus mitis Blanco) bears small citrus, which can be used as health drink fresh fruit traditionally. Calamondin contained planty phenolic compounds, which was confirmed as major bioactive compounds. Therefore, a optimal hot water extraction method with enzyme−assisted was propose in this study to enhance the release amount of phenolic compounds of calamondin. In order to elucidate the changes of phenolic compounds after enzyme−assisted hot water extraction, LC/MSn method was applied for the identification of the phenolic compounds. These could provide valuable information for the application of calamondin.
In this study, immature calamondin was collected from Jiaoxi region, Ilan county. After washing, it was lyophilized and pulverised. The conditions of enzyme−assisted extraction was as following: enzyme types (Celluclast® 1.5L, Pectinex® Ultra SP−L and Viscozyme® L), enzyme/substrate ratio (0.02, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.5), reaction temperature (40, 45, 50 and 55oC), pH (4.0, 4.8 and 5.6), and reaction duration (1, 1.5, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hour). After enzyme treatment and hot water extraction, the total phenolic content of the extracts were evaluated. Furthermore, the phenolic compositions of extracts from optimal condition were investigated by a LC/MS/MS analysis. The results indicated that the optimal extraction procedure was carried out by Viscozyme® L at 0.5 (ratio of enzyme/substrate), pH 4.8, reaction temperature 50 oC for 48 h. Then, the highest total phenolic content with the value of 2622 ± 150 mg gallic acid equivalents/100g dry calamondin was obtained by hot water extraction, which was higher than enzyme-untreated immature calamondin about 83%. Identification of phenolic composition of hot water extract from immature calamondin was performed by LC−PDA−ESI−MS. Eight flavonoids were identified as following: Vicenin−2, Apigenin−8−C−neohesperidoside, Chrysoeriol−7−O− neohesperidoside, 3,5−di−C−−gluco −pyranosylphloretin (DGPP), Hesperetin−7−O− rutinoside (Hesperidin), Hesperetin−7−O−neohesperidoside(Neohesperidin), 3,4,5,6,7,8−Hexamethoxy flavones (Nobiletin) and 4,5,6,7,8 −Pentamethoxyflavone (Tangeretin). Collectively, the major phenolic compounds in hot water extract of immature calamondin are derivates of flavanone and hydroxycinnamic acid, which most exist in form of C−glycoside. Quantification of seven main flavonoid derivatives showed the following: DGPP (2335 ± 22 mg /100g dry calamondin)、Vicenin−2 (637 ± 21 mg /100g dry calamondin), Apigenin−8−C−neohesperidoside (468 ± 22 mg /100g dry calamondin), Neohesperidin (143 ± 6mg /100g dry calamondin), Hesperidin (125 ± 6 mg /100g dry calamondin), Nobiletin (43 ± 5 mg /100g dry calamondin) and Tangeretin (10 ± 1 mg /100g dry calamondin). Enzyme−assisted hot water extraction could lead to a decrease of hesperidin and neohesperidin, while the content of their aglycone, hesperitin, increased consequently. However, the content of Vicenin-2 increased, while DGPP, Nobiletin, and Tangeretin also decreased. No obvious changes of Apigenin−8−C−neohesperidoside was observed.
摘要 I
Abstract II
誌謝 IV
目錄 V
表目錄 VII
圖目錄 VIII
壹、前言 1
貳、文獻整理 2
一、金桔 2
(一)品種及生長特性 2
(二)產量及分佈概況 2
(三)應用 3
二、酚類化合物 4
(一)酚酸(Phenolic acids) 4
(二)柑橘類酚酸 5
(三)類黃酮(flavonoids) 6
(四)柑橘類類黃酮 7
三、萃取在酚類化合物上的應用 9
(一)化學萃取法 9
(二)物理萃取法 9
(三)酵素輔助萃取法 10
1. 纖維素酶(Cellulase) 10
2. 果膠酶(Pectinases) 11
3. 半纖維素酶(Hemicellulases) 12
參、實驗架構 13
肆、材料與方法 14
一、實驗材料 14
二、藥品與器材 14
(一)藥品 14
(二)酵素 15
(三)器材 15
三、方法 15
(一)未成熟金桔樣品粉末製備 15
(二)酚類化合物之酵素輔助萃取 16
(三)熱水萃取物之製備 16
(四)酚類化合物分析 16
1. 總多酚含量分析 16
2. 酚類化合物組成分析 16
(五)液相層析質譜儀定性分析 17
(六)酸水解 17
(七)統計分析 17
伍、結果與討論 18
一、未成熟金桔酵素輔助熱水萃取條件之探討 18
(一)酵素基值比 18
(二)反應溫度 19
(三)反應時間 19
(四)環境酸鹼值 20
(五)Viscozyme 作用之E/S 比和反應溫度 20
二、金桔之酚類化合物組成及酵素處理之影響 22
(一)金桔之酚類化合物組成 22
1. 成分鑑定 22
2. 金桔熱水萃取物之酚類化合物含量分析 29
(二)、酵素處理對酚類化合物組成之影響 31
1. 成分鑑定 31
2. 酵素處理前後酚類化合物組成分之含量變化 33
陸、結論 35
柒、參考文獻 36
捌、表 56
玖、圖 71
拾、附表 103
拾壹、附圖 106
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