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研究生:李國新
研究生(外文):Kuo-Hsin Lee
論文名稱:暴露銦化合物對大鼠雄性生殖毒性之研究
論文名稱(外文):Indium Compounds Exposure and Male Reproductive Toxicity in Rats
指導教授:許昺奇許昺奇引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ping-Chi Hsu
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立高雄第一科技大學
系所名稱:工學院工程科技博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:綜合工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:英文
論文頁數:73
中文關鍵詞:醋酸銦染色質DNA傷害精子功能反應性氧化物質睪丸雄性生殖健康風險最低可觀察影響劑量氯化銦
外文關鍵詞:Reactive oxygen speciesMale reproductive health riskLowest-observed-effect levelIndium acetateIndium chlorideTestisSperm chromatin DNA damageSperm function
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中文摘要................................................................................................................. i ABSTRACT ........................................................................................................... ii 誌謝........................................................................................................................v CONTENTS ..............................................................................................................vi

LIST OF TABLES.................................................................................................xii LIST OF FIGURES.............................................................................................xiv Abbreviations .................................................................................................xvi Chapter 1 Introduction ..........................................................................................1

Chapter 2 Background...........................................................................................3


2.1 Properties and industrial utility of indium and its compounds..............3


2.1.1 Physical and chemical properties...................................................3


2.1.2 Production and uses........................................................................5


2.2 The environmental levels of indium and its compounds…………………6


2.2.1 Food and daily intake......................................................................7


2.2.2 Water, soil, and ambient Air...........................................................7

2.3 Environmental exposure and absorption.................................................9


2.3.1 Inhalation……………………………………………………9


2.3.2 Ingestion……………………………………………………9


2.4 Toxicity, toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics........................................10

2.4.1 Pulmonary toxicity........................................................................10

2.4.2 Heart, liver and kidney toxicity.......................................................14


2.4.3 Teratogenicty.................................................................................15


2.4.4 Carcinogenicity..............................................................................15


2.4.5 Reproductive toxicity.....................................................................16

.
2.5 Toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics………………………………........16


2.5.1 Distribution…………………………………………………….....16


2.5.2 Excretion…………………………………………………………..18


2.5.3 Biological half-life…………………………………...................19



Chapter 3 Objective and aim of the studies..........................................................20


3.1 Study design ...........................................................................................20


Chapter 4 Materials and Methods........................................................................23


4.1 Experimental Chemical.....................................................................23

4.1.1 Exposure concentration.............................................................23


4.1.2 Solution preparation...................................................................23


4.2 Experimental animal............................................................................24
4.2.1 Indium acetate intraperitoneal exposure……………………….24


4.2.2 Indium chloride intraperitoneal exposure………………………24


4.2.3 Indium chloride oral gavage exposure……………….. ………..25


4.3 Experimental methods………………………………………………26

4.3.1 Subacute exposure of indium acetate by intraperitoneal injection.......................................................................................26


4.3.2 Subacute exposure of indium chloride by intraperitoneal injection……………………………………………………….........27


4.3.3 Subchronic oral exposure of indium chloride ...........................27
4.4 Analysis………………………………………………………………27
4.4.1 Blood collection……………………………………………….27


4.4.2 Body and reproductive organ weight………………………….28


4.4.3 Sperm count and motility analysis…………………………….28


4.4.4 Sperm morphology analysis………………………………...29


4.4.5 Sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA)…………………..29

4.4.6 Sperm mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP)………….31


4.4.7 Sperm reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation…………..32


4.4.8 FCM DNA content analysis of testis cell…………………….32


4.4.9 Analysis of S-In………………………………………………33


4.4.10 Histopathology of testis…………………………………….. 34


4.4.11 statistical analysis…………………………………………....34

Chapter 5 Results...........................................................................................36
5.1 The male reproductive effect after subacute intraperitoneal exposure of indium acetate………………………………………………………. .36
5.1.1 Body and reproductive organ weights………………………..36


5.1.2 Serum indium levels, sperm count, motility, and morphology…37


5.1.3 FCM analysis of SCSA, MMP and ROS generation…………..39


5.1.4 DNA content analysis of testis cells……………………………40


5.1.5 Relationships among abnormal sperm morphology, mean DFI, % DFI, and ROS generation………………………………………40

5.2 The male reproductive effect after subacute intraperitoneal exposure of indium chloride…………………………………………………….....42


5.2.1 Body and reproductive organ weights………………………..42


5.2.2 Serum indium level, sperm count, motility and morphology…43


5.2.3 FCM analysis of SCSA, MMP and ROS generation……….....44


5.2.4 DNA content analysis of testis cells………………………….45


5.2.5 Relationships among abnormal sperm morphology, mean DFI, % DFI, and ROS generation………………………………………46


5.2.6 Histopathology of the testis…………………………………...48


5.3 The male reproductive effect after subchronic oral exposure of indium chloride………………………………………………………………49


5.3.1 Body and reproductive organ weights…………………………..49


5.3.2. Serum indium level, sperm counts, motility and morphology….50


5.3.3. FCM analysis of SCSA, MMP and ROS generation…………..51


5.3.4. Relationships among sperm morphology, MMP, and DFI……..53


5.3.5. DNA content analysis of testis cells………………………54


Chapter 6 Discussion…………………………………………………………55


6.1 The discussion of the male reproductive effect after subacute intraperitoneal exposure of indium acetate……………………………55


6.2 The discussion of the male reproductive effect after subacute intraperitoneal exposure of indium chloride………………………….58


6.3 The discussion of the male reproductive effect after subchronic oral exposure of indium chloride………………………………………61



Chapter 7 Conclusions....................................................................................64


References....................................................................................................65


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