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研究生:劉乃瑜
論文名稱:組織文化對知識發展與產品優勢之影響:以任務特性為觀點
論文名稱(外文):Organizational Culture, Knowledge Development, and Product Advantages: A Task Characteristic Perspective
指導教授:譚大純譚大純引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄師範大學
系所名稱:事業經營系
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:104
中文關鍵詞:組織文化知識發展產品優勢任務特性
外文關鍵詞:Organizational CultureKnowledge DevelopmentProduct AdvantagesTask Characteristic
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「知識經濟」已成為當前世界之經濟主體之一,包含了知識管理、知識工作與知識工作者等,其中以知識管理為近年來企業管理領域之重要議題。對於近年來市場競爭日趨激烈,知識活動與產品發展於企業活動中甚有密切關係,企業必須不斷發展與創造更高產品價值,以持續其優勢。
知識發展為讓企業得以延展既有之知識體,並加以拓展其領域,以能夠因應環境變化,創造更高價值。過去許多文獻探討此兩項議題時皆以策略與競爭等作連結,然而本研究則嘗試從企業文化其背景因素作切入。組織文化是帶領組織推動知識管理的關鍵,因此,本研究主要目的探討台灣產業的組織文化對產品發展優勢之活動,並以知識發展(深化與整合)為中介變數,其不僅可理解今日臺灣廠商組織文化對於產品優勢之影響,亦可探究臺灣廠商在知識管理的發展現況。
本研究主要以問卷調查法為研究方法,並針對從經濟部工商名錄和各產業同行公會的名錄總集中電腦隨機挑選廠商進行抽樣調查,總共寄出600份樣本,回收有效問卷為138份,有效回收率23.00%。並經由SPSS 20.0統計軟體以敘述性統計分析、因素分析、信度分析、皮爾森相關分析、及迴歸分析,其彙整研究結果如下:
1. 組織文化確實會影響知識發展與產品優勢。
2. 臺灣廠商知識活動的積極性與長期導向為產品發展優勢之重要因素。
3. 臺灣廠商提高知識發展之深化與整合程度,以提升產品優勢。

Abstract
Knowledge Economy has become the main stream of the world economy, it may include knowledge management, knowledge work, knowledge worker, among others. Nevertheless, the knowledge management is the important issue in business management at recent years. Meanwhile, in today’s competitive world, there is an affinity between knowledge activity and product advantages. Enterprises should constantly develop and create more value to sustain competitive advantage.
Knowledge development for firms is to sustain and to expand their knowledge to react to the changing demand in the market and to create value. Organizational culture is another essential factor which creates an atmosphere and environment in creating, gathering, and sharing knowledge among members. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the inter-relationships of organizational culture, knowledge development, and product advantages.
This study used questionnaire survey by mail to collect the observations. We sent out 600 questionnaires with a random sampling of the list of enterprises from Ministry of Economic Affairs and received 138 completions, for a 23% response rate. The SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science) was employed to analyze the data collected from the survey. According to the statistical analysis, the conclusions could be drawn as the following:
1. The organizational culture presents positive effects on knowledge development, and product advantages.
2. The initiative and long-term orientation of knowledge activity is the critical factor to product advantages to enterprises in Taiwan.
3. Firms in Taiwan should improve the knowledge development (deepening and integration) to enhance their product advantages.

目 次

第一章 緒 論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的 5
第三節 研究流程與結構 6
第二章 文獻探討 9
第一節 組織任務特性 9
第二節 知識發展 11
第三節 產品優勢 13
一、產品優勢之文獻探討 13
二、顧客之任務特性以及產品優勢 15
三、知識發展以及產品發展 20
第四節 以知識為中心之組織文化 22
一、個人/集體主義傾向以及知識活動的團隊性 24
二、權力級距以及知識活動的專家化 25
三、陽剛/陰柔主義傾向與知識活動之積極性 26
四、不確定性驅避之傾向以及知識活動的風險趨避性 27
五、儒家動力以及知識活動的時程性 28
第三章 研究方法 31
第一節 研究架構 31
第二節 量表與衡量 33
一、知識發展之策略 33
二、產品發展之優勢 35
三、以知識為中心的組織文化 35
四、基本資料(控制變項) 38
第三節 樣本與抽樣 39
第四節 資料分析方法 40
一、敘述統計分析 40
二、因素分析 40
三、一致性檢定 41
四、相關分析 41
五、迴歸模式分析 41
第四章 研究分析與討論 42
第一節 基本資料之敘述性統計分析 42
第二節 因素分析 45
第三節 各構念敘述性統計分析 47
一、知識發展 47
二、產品優勢 48
三、以知識為中心的組織文化 48
第四節 各構念一致性檢定分析 51
一、知識發展 51
二、產品優勢 52
三、以知識為中心的組織文化 52
第五節 各構念相關分析 55
一、知識發展與產品優勢之關聯性 55
二、以知識為中心的組織文化與知識發展之關聯性 55
三、以知識為中心的組織文化與產品優勢之關聯性 57
第六節 迴歸分析 58
一、知識發展對產品優勢之線性關係 58
二、以知識為中心的組織文化對知識發展之線性關係 59
三、知識發展之中介效果 62
第五章 研究結論與建議 70
第一節 研究結論 70
一、 知識發展與新產品發展 70
二、 知識活動的團隊性和知識發展與產品發展 72
三、 知識活動的專家化和知識發展與產品發展 72
四、 知識活動的積極性和知識發展與產品發展 73
五、 知識活動的風險趨避性和知識發展與產品發展 73
六、 知識活動的長期導向和知識發展與產品發展 74
七、 知識活動的短期導向和知識發展與產品發展 74
第二節 研究發現 75
第三節 管理意涵 76
一、組織知識深化度有利於產品發展上之績效優勢、客製優勢 76
二、組織知識整合度有利於產品發展上之多樣優勢、適應客製 76
三、知識活動積極性與長期導向有利於知識發展(深化與整合)與產品優勢 …………………………………………………………………………….76
第四節 研究建議與限制 77
一、實務建議 77
二、後續研究之建議 77
參考文獻 79
附錄一:研究問卷 91
附錄二:參考資料 104


表目次
表2-1 產品優勢之內涵……………………………………………...…………… 19
表3-1 本研究假設整合表………………………………..………….…………… 32
表3-2 本研究之初步量表的構念題項(預定之題項) …………….……………33
表3-3 以知識為中心之組織文化初步量表 ……………………………………36
表4-1 有效樣本企業之基本資料統計分析表 ………………………….……… 43
表4-2 以知識為中心的組織文化之因素分析(刪除問項) ………………..……. 46
表4-3 知識發展之敘述統計分析表 ……………………………………………. 47
表4-4 產品優勢之敘述統計分析表………………………………………..……..49
表4-5 以知識為中心的組織文化之敘述統計分析表……………………………50
表4-6 知識發展之一致性檢定表 ……………………………………..……..… 51
表4-7 產品優勢之一致性檢定表 ………………………………………..…..… 53
表4-8 以知識為中心的組織文化之一致性檢定表 …………………..……..… 54
表4-9 各構念之相關性檢定表 ………………………………………………… 56
表4-10 知識發展對產品優勢之迴歸分析表 ………………………….……..…58
表4-11 以知識為中心的組織文化對知識發展之迴歸分析表 ………….…..…61
表4-12 假說3-1之中介效果分析表 ……………………………………………63
表4-13 假說3-2之中介效果分析表 ……………………………………………64
表4-14 假說3-3之迴歸分析表 …………………………………….……………66
表4-15 假說3-4之中介效果分析表 ……………………………………………68
表4-16 假說3-5之迴歸分析表 ……………………………………….…………68
表4-17 假說3-6之中介效果分析表 ……………………………………………69
表5-1 研究假說與實證結果 …………………………………...…….…………71


圖目次
圖1-1研究流程圖 ……………..…………………………………………………… 7
圖2-1 Becerra-Fernandez與Sabherwal (2001)和本研究任務特性架構之對應圖...16
圖2-2本研究以顧客之任務特性來建構產品優勢之基礎 ………………………..16
圖2-3 Hofstede之文化架構模式和本研究知識為中心的組織文化架構之五項構念對應圖 …………..………………………………………………..…………30
圖3-1 本研究架構圖 ……………………………………………………………..31

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