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研究生:黃嬿霖
論文名稱:生命權力下瑪格莉特愛伍特於末世男女中的抵抗與自我關注
論文名稱(外文):The Regime of Bio-power: Resistance and the Care of the Self in Margaret Atwood’s Oryx and Crake
指導教授:朱雯娟朱雯娟引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:77
中文關鍵詞:後末世科推技術專家自我關注
外文關鍵詞:post-apocalypticspeculativetechnocracythe care of the self
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摘要

瑪格莉特愛伍特於《末世男女》中刻劃了一個近似世界末日的不毛之地。儘管小說中流露出一股荒涼陰鬱的氣息,但藉由愛伍特這個看似反烏托邦的作品,與傅柯的生命權力以及自我關注的觀點結合,點出的困境是科學論述並非是全然的中立,當然不是一概地為人們帶來希望,更不是全然的惡名昭彰。但該如何導向立意良善的一面,端看我們的有所作為,因此小說並非是全然的絕望。
此篇論文以傅柯生命權力的觀點,帶出科學論述與權力結合之下,芸芸眾生之抵抗及其效果。從傅柯的自我關注論點尋求論點上的支持,提出該如何在權力與科技的操弄之下覺醒成為能批判獨立思考的知識份子,而非成為知識/權力網絡之下的共犯,期許自己和每個人都能成為獨立批判思考具有責任感的知識份子。

Abstract

Margaret Atwood sketches a post-apocalyptic wasteland in her speculative fiction, Oryx and Crake. Murky and bleak as the story shows, it is to ring alarm bells. Therefore, with the work of fiction , this thesis problematises that with the banner of scientific objectivity, science or social sciences and consortia as accomplices, subjective intentions (individuals) are being manipulated and deployed. However, subjects as objects, we are all in one of the machinery under a larger context of the power mechanism without knowing the condition.
The novel problematises several effects of bio-politics, such as technocracy and systems of classification, all of which seems to guarantee everyone a perfect life. A utopian plan is thought to save the tottering world. My argument is under the regime of bio-power, the subjectivity of an individual is passive and everyone acts like a docile body. However, can we see any resistance in the novel? Do we still have some hope woven in the storyline?
To pursue a quality life and to lead a life of great happiness, a vigilant attitude is indispensable. Jimmy the Snowman, though wounded and traumatized, survives the human calamity. Snowman’s ability to love and reflection signals hope for future, which echoes an art of existence to the care of the self and then the others from the Greco-Roman period. Besides, Jimmy the Snowman bears a questioning attitude to reflect on lives he has lead, trying to break a passive subjectivity under the bio-power.
Through the genealogy of the care of the self from the Greco-Roman period to modern times, Foucault provides us a vision to see the shaping of subjectivity. Hence, given the care of the self in ancient times, an art of existence, the ethics of life, provides us examples to draw an experience. In this way, although Oryx and Crake is an open-ended story, left with survivors and Jimmy the Snowman, I believe that Atwood does not give us an apocalypse but a world waiting for making amends.

Keywords: post-apocalyptic, speculative, technocracy, the care of the self

Table of Contents
Chapter One: Introduction…………………………………………………………..1
I. Context: Background of Time and Space……………………..………………….1
II. Literature Reviews…………………………………………………………….....3
III. Two Strategies of Bio-power: Resistance and the Care of the Self……………..10
Chapter Two: Bio-politics and Bio-power in Oryx and Crake...………………….17
I. Bio-power over a Body…………………………………………………………17
II. Bio-power over the Population…..……………………………………………..24
Chapter Three: Power and Resistance in Oryx and Crake……..………………...34
I. The Counterattack of Resistance: Character and Event Analyses………………34
II. Deconstructing the Hierarchy: the Function of Art………………………......…38
Chapter Four: The Care of the Self in Oryx and Crake...………………………...47
I. Jimmy the Snowman as a Genealogist for Problematization…………………..47
II. Jimmy the Snowman’s Care of the Self…..…………………………………….53
Chapter Five: Conclusion:...………….…………………………………………….69
I. Bio-power……………………………………………………………………….69
II. Resistance……………………………………………………………………….70
III. The Care of the Self…………………………………………………………......72
Notes………...……………………………………………………………………….74
Works Cited…..……………………………………………………………………..75

Works Cited
Atwood, Margaret. “Margaret Atwood: The Road to Ustopia.” The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, 14 Oct 2011. Web. 20 Dec. 2011. <http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2011/oct/14/margaret-atwood-road-to-ustopia>.
---. Orxy and Crake. New York: Doubleday, 2003. Print.
Baccolini, Raffaella. “Gender and Genre in the Feminist Critical Dystopias of Katherine Burdekin, Margaret Atwood, and Octavia Butler.” Future Females, The Next Generation: New Voices and Velocities in Feminist Science Fiction Criticism. Ed. Marleen S. Barr. Lanham: Rowman &; Littlefield, 2000.13-34. Print.
Clay, Carolyn. “Grave New World: Margaret Atwood Talks Oryx and Crake” Review. Web. 4 Apr. 2014.
<http://www.bostonphoenix.com/boston/arts/books/documents/03691842.asp>.
Cole, Amanda. “In Retrospect: Writing and Reading Oryx and Crake.” Sydney. Web.
12 Dec. 2013.
<http://sydney.edu.au/arts/publications/philament/issue6_pdf/ACole_In%20Retrospect.pdf>.
Dreyfus, Hubert L., Paul Rabinow. Michel Foucault, Beyond Structuralism and Hermeneutics. Chicago: U of Chicago, 1983. Print.
Foucault, Michel. The Care of the Self. New York: Vintage, 1988. Print.
---. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. London: Penguin, 1991. Print.
---. The Hermeneutics of the Subject: Lectures at the Collège De France, 1981-1982. Trans. G. Burchell. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan, 2005. Print.
---. The History of Sexuality, Vol. 1: An Introduction. Trans. Robert Hurley. New York: Vintage, 1980. Print.
---. Language, Counter-memory, Practice: Selected Essays and Interviews. Ed. D. F. Bouchard. Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 1977. Print.
---. The Order of Things: An Archaeology of the Human Sciences. New York: Pantheon, 1971. Print.
Foucault, Michel, et al, eds. Essential Works of Foucault: 1954-1984. New York: New Press, 1997. Print.
Foucault, Michel, and Joseph Pearson. Fearless Speech. Los Angeles: Semiotext, 2001. Print.
Foucault, Michel, and Paul Rabinow. Ethics: Subjectivity and Truth. New York: New Press, 1997. Print.
Foucault, Michel, Michel Senellart, and Arnold I. Davidson. Security, Territory, Population: Lectures at the Collège De France, 1977-1978. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007. Print.
Fukuyama, Francis. Our Posthuman Future: Consequence of the Biotechnology Revolution. New York: Farrar, 2002. Print.
Hayles, N. Katherine. How We Became Posthuman: Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics, Literature, and Informatics. Chicago, Ill.: U of Chicago P, 1999. Print.
Molfino, Francesca, and Flavia Zucco. Women in Biotechnology: Creating Interfaces. Dordrecht: Springer, 2008. Print.
Moylan, Tom. Demand the Impossible: Science Fiction and the Utopian Imagination. New York: Methuen. 1986. Print.
Nayar, Pramod K. Posthumanism. Cambridge: Polity, 2013. Print.
Oswell, David. Culture and Society: An Introduction to Cultural Studies. London: Sage, 2006. Print.
Sheridan, Alan. Michel Foucault: The Will to Truth. London: Tavistock, 1980. Print.
Snow, C. P. The Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution. New York: Cambridge UP, 1959. Print.
Staines, David. The Cambridge Companion to Margaret Atwood. Ed. Coral Ann Howells. Cambridge Companions to Literature. New York: Cambridge UP, 2006. Print.
Woolf, Virginia. To the Lighthouse. London: Penguin Books, 1996. Print.
Yi-chuan, Huang. “Reading Biotechnology: Margaret Atwood’s Oryx and Crake.” MA Thesis. National Tsing Hua U, 2009. Print.

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