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研究生:曾寶儀
研究生(外文):Bao-yi Zeng
論文名稱:讀寫教學對高中生批判思考能力與批判思考意向之影響
論文名稱(外文):The Effects of Reading-Writing Instruction on Critical Thinking Ability and Critical Thinking Disposition of Senior High School Students
指導教授:石素錦石素錦引用關係
指導教授(外文):Su-chin Shih
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:英文
論文頁數:216
中文關鍵詞:讀寫教學批判思考批判思考能力批判思考意向高中生
外文關鍵詞:Reading-Writing InstructionCritical ThinkingCritical Thinking AbilityCritical Thinking DispositionSenior High School Students
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此篇論文包含兩個研究(如下文所述之研究一與研究二)。研究一旨在探討台灣高中生之批判思考能力與英文閱讀理解能力之關聯。另一方面,研究二旨在探討讀寫教學對台灣高中生的批判思考能力與批判思考意向之影響。此外,本研究亦探討學生對於讀寫教學的回饋與反應。
於研究一當中,研究對象為113位彰化縣立田中高級中學一年級的學生。為了解受試學生之批判思考能力與英文閱讀理解能力,受試學生接受批判思考測驗—第一級(葉, 2003)與全民英檢中級之閱讀理解測驗。學生完成以上兩個測驗之後,研究者蒐集學生此兩個測驗之分數,並且採用統計分析中之皮爾森積差相關進行分析,以了解學生之批判思考能力與英文閱讀理解能力之關聯。
於研究二當中,研究對象為11位彰化縣立田中高級中學一年級的學生。研究者設計其讀寫教學為此研究上之教學所用,以提升受試學生之批判思考能力與批判思考意向。所有研究學生皆接受六週的讀寫教學。於讀寫教學過程當中,研究者的教學重心以閱讀教學為主。教學中,學生需閱讀三篇文章。每一篇閱讀文章皆有三個階段的教學指導及搭配的寫作活動。三個閱讀教學階段為:閱讀文本、詮釋文本、以及鑑賞文本。
在研究者實行讀寫教學之前,所有的11位受試學生須接受批判思考測驗—第一級(葉, 2003)與批判思考意向量表(葉, 1999)做為前測。而後,在經過六週的讀寫教學之後,受試學生須接受批判思考測驗—第一級(葉, 2003)與批判思考意向量表(葉, 1999)做為後測。本研究分別比較批判思考測驗—第一級與批判思考意向量表的前、後測之結果,以探索讀寫教學對於學生批判思考能力與批判思考意向之影響。為了分析量化的研究數據,研究者採用重複樣數t考驗比較學生之前、後測之分數。研究者亦以錄音方式與受試學生進行訪談,了解他們對於讀寫教學之回饋與反應,並進一步譯寫做為其質性研究的分析資料。此外,研究者也額外分析學生於讀寫教學中所完成的課堂學習單,以探究學生的學習過程。
根據研究一與研究二之結果,主要發現之概述如下:
1. 研究一顯示學生的批判思考能力與英語閱讀理解能力呈現高度正相關,而且相關係數達到顯著水準。也就是說,批判思考能力較佳的學生也會有較好的英語閱讀理解能力;相反地,批判思考能力較弱的學生,其英語閱讀理解能力也會比較弱。
2. 研究二顯示受試學生接受讀寫教學之後,學生的批判思考能力有顯著的進步。此結果顯示讀寫教學對於提升學生的批判思考能力有顯著的正面影響。因此,讀寫教學對於增進高中生批判思考能力上為有益的教學。
3. 在批判思考測驗—第一級的五種批判思考能力(辨認假設、歸納、演繹、解釋、評鑑)當中,研究結果指出讀寫教學於學生的評鑑能力上有正面且顯著的影響。雖然學生在辨認假設、歸納、演繹、及解釋的能力上的後測成績比前測成績稍高,但是在這四個能力上的提升並沒有達到顯著的水準。然而,在評鑑能力上,學生的後測平均分數明顯的比前測分數高。因此,此研究發現在五種批判思考能力當中,讀寫教學有助於提升高中生的評鑑能力。
4. 在讀寫教學對於學生之批判思考意向之影響上,研究二的結果顯示讀寫教學對於培養學生批判思考意向有顯著的正面影響。因此,讀寫教學有助於提升高中生之批判思考意向。
5. 根據學生對於讀寫教學的回饋與反應,大多數的學生於訪談中提及令他們印象最深刻的活動,為要求他們畫圖與寫下他們最喜歡且印象最深刻的故事片段。他們認為畫畫使教學過程更為有趣,也更能幫助他們理解故事內容。另外,大多數學生認為此讀寫教學有助於提升他們的批判思考能力。他們也透露其讀寫教學對於提升他們英文閱讀理解及英文寫作上有所幫助。此外,當問及學生認為哪個活動能幫助他們思考時,大部分的學生回答小組討論並完成故事內容架構的組織圖之活動幫助他們思考,並且學習與同學合作完成。有些同學認為老師(研究者)於教學過程中問他們的問題有助於他們思考。簡言之,大多數同學對讀寫教學給予正面的回饋。
6. 於學生的課堂學習單中,研究者根據學生的回答歷程發現一些證據,進而推論學生提升其批判思考能力。在分析學生的學習單中,學生的回答展現了他們在詮釋、整合、分析、評鑑等等的批判思考能力。根據學生的故事內容架構學習單,學生於書寫故事內容情境上展現他們的整合及組織能力,並根據他們對故事的理解,透過小組討論,完成於學習單中。此外,在學生畫圖且書寫他們最喜歡的故事情節的學習單中,他們展現了個人的詮釋能力,進而運用自我的想像力描述故事情節。然而,當他們在進行其故事啟示學習單及課堂同學訪談學習單時,他們進而運用他們的評鑑能力以分析故事角色的行為,並藉故事內容聯想自己的個人生活經驗來表達自己的想法。整體而言,學生的學習單展現了他們在不同面向的批判思考能力。
綜合以上的研究結果,本研究對於英語老師提供以下之建議:(1) 結合三個階段的閱讀理解歷程做為英文閱讀教學的引導方針,以助於提升學生的批判思考,(2) 於課堂中多詢問學生引申式或開放式的問題,以幫助學生主動探索學習其閱讀的文章並增進他們的批判思考,(3) 透過小組討論活動激發學生的思考以提升學生批判思考能力與批判思考意向,(4) 運用一些課堂活動,例如:結合故事內容組織架構圖表於英文閱讀教學中,加入課內同學訪談活動以鼓勵學生分享其想法,結合繪畫與寫作來激發學生的想像力以透過不同的表達方式展現其想法。以上皆為於英語教學上提升學生批判思考的方式與建議。

This study contains two research studies. Research 1 aimed to examine the correlation between senior high school students’ critical thinking ability and their English reading comprehension proficiency. On the other hand, Research 2 aimed to investigate the effects of the reading-writing instruction on critical thinking ability and disposition for senior high school students in Taiwan. Moreover, students’ feedback responses toward the reading-writing instruction were also discussed.
In Research 1, 113 tenth-grade students from three classes in Changhua County Tianjhong Senior High School participated in the study. Then, to understand students’ critical thinking ability and reading comprehension proficiency, the student participants were required to take Critical Thinking Test-Level 1 (Yeh, 2003) and the reading comprehension test from the intermediate level of GEPT. After students completed the two tests, the researcher collected students’ scores of the two tests and employed Pearson Product Moment Correlation to investigate the correlation between students’ critical thinking ability and English reading comprehension proficiency.
As for Research 2, 11 tenth-grade students in Changhua County Tianjhong Senior High School were recruited in the study. The researcher designed the reading-writing instruction to strengthen the participant students’ critical thinking ability and critical thinking disposition. All the participants received 6 weeks reading-writing instruction. During the reading-writing instruction, the researcher put the main focus on reading instruction. In the instruction, three reading materials were applied for students to read. Each reading material went through three levels of reading teaching process, accompanied with writing activities, including reading the text, interpreting the text, and reading beyond the text.
Before the researcher implemented the reading-writing instruction, all the participants were asked to take the Critical Thinking Test-Level 1 (Yeh, 2003) and the Questionnaire of Critical Thinking Disposition (Yeh’s, 1999) as the pretests. After 6-week instruction, all of the participants were required to take the Critical Thinking Test-Level 1 posttest and the Questionnaire of Critical Thinking Disposition posttest. The results of the two Critical Thinking Test-Level 1 tests (a pretest and a posttest) and two questionnaire of critical thinking disposition (a pretest and a posttest) were collected to explore the effects of reading-writing instruction on the enhancement of students’ critical thinking ability and their critical thinking disposition. To analyze the data quantitatively, the paired-samples t-test was used to compare students’ pretests and posttests. Moreover, as for the qualitative data, an interview of how students responded to the reading-writing instruction was administered through audio-taping, followed by transcription and analysis. Additionally, students’ in-class activity worksheets were also analyzed to explore students’ learning process.
Based on the results of Research 1 & 2 in the present study, the findings are summarized as follows:
1. The students’ critical thinking ability positively correlates with their English reading comprehension proficiency. That is, students with better critical thinking ability tend to have better performance in their English reading comprehension. In contrast, students with insufficient critical thinking skills might have some difficulty in comprehending English reading texts.
2. After receiving 6-week reading-writing instruction, all the participants in Research 2 had significant progress as reflected in the Critical Thinking Test-Level 1 test. The results indicated that the instruction had significant positive effects on the development of students’ critical thinking ability. Thus, the reading-writing instruction was beneficial to the enhancement of senior high school students’ critical thinking ability.
3. Among five categories (i.e., assumption identification, induction, deduction, interpretation, and evaluation) in the Critical Thinking Test-Level 1, the results indicated that the significantly positive influence of the reading-writing instruction was found in students’ evaluation ability. In the section of Assumption Identification, Induction, Deduction, and Interpretation, although students’ posttest mean scores showed a little higher than their pretest mean scores, results did not reach the significant gains. It was only in the Evaluation section that students’ posttest score was on average significantly higher than their pretest score. Therefore, the findings suggest that the reading-writing instruction was helpful in enhancing senior high school students’ evaluation ability among five critical thinking abilities.
4. For the effects of the reading-writing instruction on students’ critical thinking disposition, the results in Research 2 in this study showed that the instruction had significant positive influences on cultivating students’ critical thinking disposition. Thus, the reading-writing instruction was helpful to the enhancement of senior high school students’ critical thinking disposition.
5. Based on students’ responses toward the reading-writing instruction, most of the students revealed that their most impressive activity was the activity which required them to draw and write down their favorite and impressive part of the story. They claimed that drawing made the instructional process more interesting, and helped them to comprehend reading materials better. Furthermore, most of the students claimed that the reading-writing instruction was beneficial for them to strengthen their critical thinking skills. What’s more, they also revealed that the instruction was helpful in improving their English reading comprehension and English writing. In addition, when asked which activity helped them to think, most of them indicated that group discussion activity which asked them to write graphic organizers relating to story content helped them to think and work cooperatively with classmates together. Some of the students revealed that the questions that the teacher researcher asked in the instructional process helped them to think. Simply put, most of the students had positive feedback in the interview.
6. The researcher found some proofs that further imply that students improved their critical thinking ability from their in-class worksheets. By analyzing students’ worksheets, their performances revealed that their critical thinking skills, such as interpretation, synthesis, evaluation, and so on were inspired and applied during their worksheets writing process. According to students’ graphic organizer worksheets, students showed their synthesizing and organizing skills to write the story plots with their comprehension of the reading materials by working in groups. Moreover, in students’ drawing and writing for their favorite part of the story, they performed their personal interpretation skills to express the story creatively. Then, when doing their story reflections, and interview worksheets, they further applied their evaluation skills to analyze the character’s behaviors in the story and express their thoughts by linking their life experiences. In general, students’ worksheets implied that they performed their critical thinking skills in a variety of ways.
To sum up, the suggestions that this study provided for English teachers are: (1) integrating the guidelines of three levels of reading comprehension process while teaching English reading to promote students’ critical thinking, (2) asking more referential questions or some open questions in class to help students to learn from what they’ve read actively to promote their critical thinking, (3) inspiring students’ thoughts through having group discussion to promote students’ critical thinking ability and critical thinking disposition, and (4) applying some in-class activities, for example, combining graphic organizers to teach English reading, integrating interview activity to encourage students to express their thoughts and ideas, and combining drawing and writing together to stimulate their imagination and show their unique way of expressions are ways to cultivate students’ learning toward critical thinking in EFL classroom.

TABLE OF CONTENTS


Acknowledgements………………………I
Chinese Abstract………………………III
English Abstract………………………V
Table of Contents……………………X
List of Tables……………………………XIV
List of Figures…………………………XVI


Chapter

I. INTRODUCTION……………………………………1
1.1 Background and Motivation…………………………………1
1.2 Statement of the Problem……………………………………11
1.3 Purpose of the Study………………………………………………13
1.4 Research Questions……………………………………………………14
1.5 Significance of the Study…………………………………14
1.6 Definition of Terms…………………………………………………15
1.7 Limitations of the Study……………………………………20

II. LITERATURE REVIEW………………………………................22
2.1 Language Learning and Thinking…………………………………..22
2.1.1 A Brief Description of Language and Thought…23
2.1.2 The Relationship between Language Learning and Thinking….........................................23
2.1.3 The Importance of Cultivating Learners’ Thinking Skills in Language Learning Process…………………………………….25
2.2 Critical Thinking……………………………………………………….......27
2.2.1 What is Critical Thinking?..................27
2.2.1.1 Thinking versus Critical Thinking………………………28
2.2.1.2 The Definition of Critical Thinking……29
2.2.1.2.1 Different Perspectives of Critical Thinking from Philosophers and Psychologists……....30
2.2.1.2.2 Bloom’s Taxonomy and Its Implication of Critical Thinking………………………………..................31
2.2.1.2.3 Scholars’ Viewpoints of Critical Thinking……........................................33
2.2.2 Critical Thinking Disposition…………………………………..37
2.2.3 Teaching Critical Thinking………………………………………...41
2.2.3.1 Approaches Based on Vygotsky’s Learning Theory…42
2.2.3.2 Approaches Based on Freire’s Critical Pedagogy……….......................................44
2.2.3.3 Beaumount’s Sequence of Critical Thinking Tasks.............................................46
2.2.4 Other Activities for Cultivating Students’ Critical Thinking……...............................50
2.3 Reading and Critical Thinking……………………………………..51
2.3.1 The Nature of Reading Comprehension Process……………….....................................51
2.3.1.1 Reading as A Hypothesis-Testing and Problem-Solving Activity………………………………………………….......53
2.3.1.2 Three Levels of Comprehension in Reading...........................................55
2.3.2 The Relationship between Reading and Critical Thinking……….......................................56
2.3.2.1 Schema Theory in Reading…………………….56
2.3.2.2 Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Process……………......................................58
2.3.2.3 From Other Researchers’ viewpoints……………………................................59
2.3.3 Cultivating Critical Thinking through English Reading………….......................................61
2.4 Writing and Critical Thinking…………………………………………65
2.4.1 The Process of Writing…………………………………………..65
2.4.2 The Relationship between Writing and Critical Thinking……….......................................70
2.4.3 Promoting Critical Thinking through English Writng…………........................................71

III. METHODOLOGY………………………………………..................77
3.1 Research Design……………………………………………………….........77
3.2 Participants……………………………………………………………..........79
3.3 Instruments……………………………………………………………...........80
3.3.1 English Reading Comprehension Proficiency Test………………........................................80
3.3.2 Critical Thinking Test…………………………………………….81
3.3.3 Questionnaire of Critical Thinking Disposition…………………................................83
3.3.4 Interview………………………………………………………….........84
3.4 Reading-Writing Instruction…………………………………………..85
3.4.1 Reading Materials……………………………………………….....85
3.4.2 Instructional Process……………………………………………..87
3.4.3 Activities in Three Levels of Reading Instruction……………….................................88
3.5 Procedure…………………………………………………………….............90
3.6 Data Analysis…………………………………………………………..........92

IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION………………………….............94
4.1 Critical Thinking Ability and English Reading Comprehension Proficiency………………………………………………………....94
4.2 Reading-Writing Instruction and Critical Thinking Ability………….......................................97
4.3 Reading-Writing Instruction and Five Critical Thinking Abilities……..............................99
4.3.1 Assumption Identification………………………………………100
4.3.2 Induction………………………………………………………….........101
4.3.3 Deduction………………………………………………………..........103
4.3.4 Interpretation……………………………………………………......104
4.3.5 Evaluation……………………………………………………….........106
4.4 Reading-Writing Instruction and Critical Thinking Disposition…….....................................108
4.5 The Students’ Interview Responses toward the Reading-Writing Instruction………………………………………………………….........110
4.6 The Proofs from Students’ Worksheets………………………119

V. CONCLUSIONS…………………………………………...................122
5.1 Summary of the Major Findings……………………………………….122
5.2 Pedagogical Implications……………………………………………....125
5.3 Suggestions for Future Research……………………………………128

REFERENCES………………………………………………......................131

Appendix A: Critical Thinking Test-Level 1……………………142 Appendix B: Questionnaire of Critical Thinking Disposition…………...................................157
Appendix C: The Spider and the Beehive…………………………….161
Appendix C-1: Reading the text of The Spider and the Beehive………........................................162
Appendix C-2: Interpreting the text of The Spider and the Beehive…….........................................164
Appendix C-3: Reading beyond the text of The Spider and the Beehive.......................................165
Appendix D: Piggybook…………………………………………………….........167
Appendix D-1: Reading the text of Piggybook……………….168
Appendix D-2: Interpreting the text of Piggybook………………………................................170
Appendix D-3: Reading beyond the text of Piggybook…………………..................................172
Appendix E: Friends………………………………………………………..........174
Appendix E-1: Reading the text of Friends………………………175
Appendix E-2: Interpreting the text of Friends…………177
Appendix E-3: Reading beyond the text of Friends……………………...................................179
Appendix F: Schedule of the reading-writing instruction……………….................................171
Appendix G: Activities in reading-writing instruction and their relating critical thinking skills……………………………183
Appendix H: Interview (Chinese Version)……………………………184
Appendix I: Interview (English Version)……………………………195
Appendix J: Student’s graphic organizer worksheet sample 1………….............................................206
Appendix K: Student’s graphic organizer worksheet sample 2………..............................................207
Appendix L: Student’s drawing and writing worksheet sample 1……........................................208
Appendix M: Student’s drawing and writing worksheet sample 2……........................................209
Appendix N: Student’s drawing and writing worksheet sample 3……........................................210
Appendix O: Student’s story reflection worksheet sample 1……………............................................211
Appendix P: Student’s story reflection worksheet sample 2……………............................................212
Appendix Q: Student’s story reflection worksheet sample 3……………............................................213
Appendix R: Student’s story reflection worksheet sample 4……………............................................214
Appendix S: Student’s interview worksheet sample 1…………………..........................................215
Appendix T: Student’s interview worksheet sample 2…………………..........................................216


LIST OF TABLES

Table

1. A Sequence of Critical Thinking Tasks……………………......46
2. Inter-Correlations, Means, and Standard Deviations for the scores on Critical Thinking Test- Level 1 (CTT-L1) and the English Reading Comprehension Proficiency Test (ERCPT) from the Intermediate Level of GEPT (N=113 )…………..................................................95
3. Descriptive Statistics of the Scores on Critical Thinking Test- Level 1 (CTT-L1)…………………………………….........97
4. Paired Samples t-Test for the Difference between Critical Thinking Test-Level 1 (CTT-L1) Pretest and Critical Thinking Test-Level 1 (CTT-L1) Posttest Score……………............................................98
5. Descriptive Statistics of the Scores on Assumption Identification (AI) in Critical Thinking Test- Level 1 (CTT-L1)…………………………………………………...........................100
6. Paired Samples t-Test for the Difference between Assumption Identification (AI) Pretest and Assumption Identification (AI) Posttest Score…………………………..........101
7. Descriptive Statistics of the Scores on Induction in Critical Thinking Test- Level 1 (CTT-L1)…………………………....102
8. Paired Samples t-Test for the Difference between Induction Pretest and Induction Posttest Score………………………........................................103
9. Descriptive Statistics of the Scores on Deduction in Critical Thinking Test- Level 1 (CTT-L1)…………………………....103
10. Paired Samples t-Test for the Difference between Deduction Pretest and Deduction Posttest Score.................................................104
11. Descriptive Statistics of the Scores on Interpretation in Critical Thinking Test- Level 1 (CTT-L1)…………………............................................105
12. Paired Samples t-Test for the Difference between Interpretation Pretest and Interpretation Posttest Score……...............................................106
13. Descriptive Statistics of the Scores on Evaluation in Critical Thinking Test- Level 1 (CTT-L1)………………….......106
14. Paired Samples t-Test for the Difference between Evaluation Pretest and Evaluation Posttest Score…………..107
15. Descriptive Statistics of the Scores on Questionnaire of Critical Thinking Disposition (CTD)……………………….......109
16. Paired Samples t-Test for the Difference between Questionnaire of Critical Thinking Disposition (CTD) Pretest and Questionnaire of Critical Thinking Disposition (CTD) Posttest Score……………………………………….......109


LIST OF FIGURES

Figure

1. Triangle Relationships among Critical thinking, Reading, and Writing……………………………………………...............8
2. Bloom’s Taxonomy of Cognitive Thinking…………………......32
3. The Process of Critical Thinking……………………………........36
4. The Hayes and Flower (1980) Writing Model…………….....67
5. Hayes’s (1996) Model of the Cognitive Process in Reading to Evaluate Text…………………………………………….............68
6. The Hayes’s (1996) Model of Writing Process……………...70
7. The Readability Graph of The Spider and the Beehive...............................................86
8. The Readability Graph of Piggybook…………………….........86
9. The Readability Graph of Friends………………………….........87
10. Procedure of Research 1 ………………………………..............90
11. Procedure of Research 2…………………………………..............91


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