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研究生:陳富榮
論文名稱:學前兒童在單詞和語句的構音正確率比較
指導教授:許馨仁許馨仁引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄師範大學
系所名稱:聽力學與語言治療研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:復健醫學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:89
中文關鍵詞:構音錯誤構音評估構音情境共構難易度
外文關鍵詞:Articulation errorsArticulation assessmentArticulation contextCo-articulation
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本研究目的在於探討習華語的兒童其構音表現是否會受到構音情境(單詞或語句)的影響。本研究以18位3至6歲、在口語中有構音錯誤的學前兒童為對象,使用一項圖片命名作業及一項句子描述作業,誘發兒童對於相同一組詞彙的發音,藉以比較兒童的聲母及韻母之構音正確率在單詞及句子情境下的差異。本研究的主要結果為:(一)整體韻母的構音正確率顯著高於聲母,且單詞構音情境的語音正確率顯著高於句子;(二)在韻母類別上,單韻母的構音正確率最高,其次複韻母,而聲隨韻母的構音正確率最低;且除了單韻母在單詞和句子的構音正確率無差異以外,複韻母及聲隨韻母的構音正確率在單詞的構音情境顯著高於句子;(三)整體聲母的共構難易度並未達顯著,但是聲母在單詞構音情境中的構音正確率顯著高於句子;(四)當兒童的口語中有較多的語音錯誤時,這些兒童在單詞和句子構音情境中的構音差異也越大。本研究結果顯示以圖片命名的方式來評估兒童的構音表現容易高估兒童的能力。此外,兒童在單詞和語句當中的構音表現差異可能和兒童本身的構音能力有關,此結果顯示在臨床上使用自發性語句來評估有構音異常的兒童實有其必要性。
The aim of the study was to investigate whether or not children’s articulation accuracy would be affected by the context in which sounds are produced (single words versus sentences). The participants were eighteen 3- to 6-year-old Mandarin-speaking children who showed articulation errors in their speech. A single-word picture naming task and a sentence description task were used to elicit children’s production of the same set of target words in the contexts of single word production and sentence production. The results were: (1) the overall production accuracy of vowels was significantly higher than that of consonants, and the overall production accuracy was higher in single word production than in sentence production; (2) among all 3 rime types, the production accuracy of monophthongs was higher than that of diphthongs, which in turn was higher than that of vowels with a nasal coda;(3) co-articulation did not have a direct influence on articulation accuracy; (4) the difference in articulation accuracy between single word production and sentence production was higher in children who showed a higher rate of articulation errors. Overall, the results of the current study suggest that when measuring children’s articulation ability, only relying on results from a single-word production task might underestimate children’s articulation errors. Finally, in the current study differences in articulation accuracy between single word production and sentence production were associated with rates of articulation errors. This finding reveals that it is critical to evaluate children’s articulation in the context of sentence or utterance production when working with children with speech sound disorders.
摘要 i
Abstract ii
目錄 iv
表目錄 vi
圖目錄 vii
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的與待答問題 4
第三節 名詞解釋 5
第二章 文獻探討 6
第一節 語音習得 6
第二節 華語兒童語音發展 11
第三節 構音/音韻評估 18
第三章 研究方法 28
第一節 研究對象 28
第二節 研究工具 30
第三節 施測步驟 37
第四節 資料處理與分析 41
第四章 研究結果 45
第一節 整體構音正確率 45
第二節 韻母的分析 48
第三節 聲母的分析 51
第四節 構音能力與構音情境 58
第五章 綜合討論 63
第一節 整體構音正確率的討論 64
第二節 韻母的部份 65
第三節 聲母發音方法、發音位置、送氣與否 66
第四節 聲母的共構難易度及錯誤類型 68
第五節 構音能力與構音情境 70
第六節 臨床應用 70
第七節 研究限制 71
第八節 未來研究建議 73
參考文獻 74
附錄 82



表2-1 習英語兒童的子音發展表 10
表2-2 華語聲母字音表 13
表2-3 成對送氣與不送氣聲母的組合 13
表2-4 習華語兒童正不同年齡階段的語音/音素發展摘要表 16
表3-1 受試者的基本資料 29
表3-2 施測的目標字詞 31
表3-3 聲母在第一音節及第二音節的發音次數 32
表3-4 個別聲母的發音總次數 33
表3-5 送氣與不送氣的聲母 34
表3-6 依據共構難易度分類的詞彙 35
表3-7 個別韻母的出現次數 36
表4-1 語音類別在構音情境中的統計結果摘要 47
表4-2 三種韻母類別在單詞及句子中的構音正確率 49
表4-3 共構難易度的在兩種構音情景下的正確率 56
表4-4 個別兒童聲母之未通過率 60
表4-5 高、低語音錯誤組兒童之構音表現 61

圖2-1 華語母音構音位置圖示 12
圖3-1 單詞圖卡在句子描述作業中的使用 37
圖3-2 單詞命名作業的施測流程 39
圖3-3 句子描述作業的施測流程 40
圖4-1 聲母及韻母的在單詞和句子之平均構音正確率 46
圖4-2 三種韻母類別在單詞及句子中的構音正確率 48
圖4-3 個別韻母在單詞及句子中的構音正確率 50
圖4-4 聲母發音方法在兩種情境下的構音正確率 52
圖4-5 聲母發音位置在兩種情境下的構音正確率 53
圖4-6 聲母送氣與否在兩種情境下的構音正確率 54
圖4-7 個別聲母在不同情境下的正確率 55
圖4-8 聲母共構難易度在兩種情境下的正確率…………………………………..56
圖4-9 不同錯誤類型在兩種構音情境下的發生率 57


一、中文部分
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林寶貴、黃玉枝、黃桂君、宣崇慧 (2007)。修訂學前兒童語言障礙評量表指導手冊。台北市:國立台灣師範大學特殊教育中心。
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謝孟庭 (2009)。構音及音韻異常子音正確率、言語清晰度與臨床嚴重度判斷之關係。未出版碩士論文。國立高雄師範大學,高雄市。
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