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研究生:黃鴻翔
研究生(外文):Hung-hsiang Huang
論文名稱:愛河截流對高雄港水體生態環境影響模擬
論文名稱(外文):Modeling Nutrient Dynamics in Love River and Kaohsiung Harbor due to Sewerage Diversion
指導教授:于嘉順
指導教授(外文):Jason Yu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:海洋環境及工程學系研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:211
中文關鍵詞:營養鹽愛河高雄港生態模式水動力模式
外文關鍵詞:Love RiverKaohsiung Harborecological modelhydrodynamic modelnutrient
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高雄港是一狹長海灣,原為天然潟湖,自日治時期開始,歷經一個世紀的發展,已成為台灣第一大港,但也因高雄市工業發展的原故,使高雄港及愛河水質逐年的下降。由於高雄市早期汙水下水道不普及,大量汙染流進愛河,使原具有排水功能的愛河無法負荷這些汙染,成為一條嚴重汙染的河川,同時高雄港亦因愛河淡水的注入,水質受到嚴重影響。愛河在1990建置污水幹管進行截流,對高雄港水質改善明顯,但由於南台灣氣候乾濕季節分明,在雨季及颱風季節時大量沉積營養鹽因雨水沖刷進入愛河。因此本研究為了解愛河對高雄港以及高雄港外海之互動關係,以三維水動力模式耦合生態模式進行案例模擬,以高雄港水質實測資料為基礎,在矽營養鹽及磷營養鹽為充足的假設前提下,結合潮汐循環以及氣象條件進行生態模擬。
研究結果顯示,不論是在乾濕季或截流後之氨氮、硝酸鹽及化學需氧量皆比截流前低,溶氧也比截流前高許多,浮游動物比截流前略高,表示愛河晴天污水截流後,高雄港內水質改善很多,但港內之浮游藻類及氨氮依然比外港高些,而外港之溶氧亦比港內高。颱風期間,不論是截流前截流後,愛河的閘門都會打開,且帶來大量的淡水及營養鹽,從模擬結果可得知截流前後兩者差異不大,表示當愛河流量很強的時候對高雄港影響相當明顯,並且將營養鹽帶到外海,結果顯示營養鹽從愛河帶到港外約需96小時,且可看到水舌現象,亦表示颱風過後兩天才明顯在港外看到藻華現象。
Kaohsiung Harbor was a narrow coastal lagoon. It has become the most important harbor in Taiwan, even internationally important, through a century development since the Japanese colonial period. The water quality of the harbor and the Love River became worse and worse due to intensive industrial developments since 1970. The sewerage system of Kaohsiung was not properly constructed before 1990, which cause the water seriously polluted. Since 1990, Kaohsiung city government started the interceptor project to improve the water quality of the Love River and the harbor. However, there are clear seasonal patterns in the south of Taiwan, which divides the year into dry and wet season. The dry weather flows are intercepted into sewer mains and convey to treatment which improves the water quality condition during the dry season. However, sediments accumulated in the drainage systems were flushing out to the Love River during the wet season because the interceptor had to open letting rain storm discharge into the River, particularly during typhoon periods. In order to study the seasonal variation of the water from Love River to Kaohsiung Harbor and the neighboring coastal seas, a 3-D hydrodynamic model (SELFE) coupled with an ecological model have been constructed. Decades of water quality data have been collected and analyzed as basic information for the study. Besides the hydrodynamics and the nitrogen cycle in the water environment are modeled, silicate and phosphate are considered as sufficiently supplied.
According to the model results, no matter in dry or wet season, ammonia, nitrate and COD in the Love River were lower, oxygen and zooplankton were higher after the completion of the interceptor project. Though phytoplankton and ammonia were still a little higher in the harbor the water quality of the Kaohsiung Harbor and its associated waters was much improved. The interceptors were opened during typhoon periods, loads of nutrients accompanied with fresh water flushed into the Love River. Model results are shown little difference during storm season before and after the interceptor project because the gates were all opened. It is also means the nutrients can affect Kaohsiung Harbor and to the coastal water too. The nutrients can be transported into coastal water in about 96 hours. The algal bloom can be observed from the model results 2 days after typhoon left.
第一章 緒論 1
1-1 研究動機 1
1-2 文獻回顧 3
1-2-1 港口水動力交換相關研究 3
1-2-2 國外港口及灣岸相關研究 3
1-2-3 國內港口及港灣相關研究 8
1-2-4 高雄港相關研究 11
1-2-5 愛河相關研究 15
1-3 研究架構 17
第二章 模式介紹 18
2-1前言 18
2-2 水動力模式 20
2-2-1控制方程式 20
2-2-2模式特性 22
2-3 生態模式 25
2-3-1模式特性 26
2-3-2浮游動物 (Zooplankton) 33
2-3-3 浮游藻類 (Phytoplankton) 35
2-3-4 有機碳 (Organic Carbon): 39
2-3-5 有機氮類 (Nitrogen) 42
2-3-6 磷酸鹽類 (Phosphorus) 47
2-3-7 矽酸鹽類 (Silicate) 51
2-3-8 化學需氧量 (chemical oxygen demand) 54
2-3-9 溶氧量 (Oxygen demand) 54
2-4 參數敏感度分析 56
2-4-1 敏感度分析案例設定 56
2-4-2 敏感度分析結果討論 58
2-4-3 敏感度分析結果小結 61
2-5 理想案例測試 62
第三章 模式建置 69
3-1 高雄港資料蒐集與整理 69
3-1-1 高雄港及愛河水文與水質資料整理 70
3-2 水動力模式 80
3-2-1 水動力模式網格製作 80
3-2-2 邊界設定 83
3-2-3 模式校驗 84
3-3 生態模式 91
3-3-1 模式溫度測試 91
3-3-2 模式循環測試 97
第四章 案例分析及討論 101
4-1 前言 101
4-2 情境案例設計 101
4-2-1 案例描述 101
4-2-2 案例背景設定 102
4-2-3 案例條件限制 105
4-3 結果討論 107
4-3-1 氣象場影響 107
4-3-2 流場討論 110
4-3-3 案例I生態模擬結果探討 134
4-3-4 案例II生態模擬結果探討 143
4-3-5 案例III生態模擬結果探討 152
4-3-6 案例IV生態模擬結果探討 161
4-3-7 愛河截流前後乾濕季生態比較 170
4-3-8 愛河截流後颱風對高雄港一港口區域影響 175
第五章 結論與建議 181
5-1 結論 181
5-2 建議 182
參考文獻 184
附錄 188
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