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研究生:許雁筑
研究生(外文):Yen-chu Hsu
論文名稱:在LTE-A網路上新增群組管理的Agent以改進影音串流的換手品質
論文名稱(外文):Improving Video Handover Quality Using a Group Management Agent on LTE-A Networks
指導教授:許蒼嶺
指導教授(外文):Tsang-Ling Sheu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:92
中文關鍵詞:長期演進技術升級版NS-3影像品質群播群播管理的代理路由器
外文關鍵詞:NS-3LTE-AMulticastingGMP AgentVideo Quality
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在LTE-A (Long Term Evolution-Advanced)群播環境下當一個UE (User Equipment)從一個Serving eNodeB (evolved-Node base station)下的群播群組移動到Target eNodeB下的群播群組時,此UE向Multicast Router (MR)所提出的IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) join訊息會因為無線環境下的noise而發生傳送失敗,這會讓UE即使已經移到Target eNodeB也收不到群播的影音串流。所以為了改善在群播環境下因為IGMP join無法順利傳到MR,本論文在PGW (Packet Data Network Gateway)有線端新增一個LTE-GMP Agent,此一Agent可以代替UE在有線端發出IGMP join,因此可以確保IGMP join不會因為noise的影響而傳送失敗。另外一方面eNodeB間的overlapping區域也會影響UE在群播環境下的影音串流接收品質,當overlapping區域太小時因為handover signal 很容易失敗,必須經過多次重傳才能成功,我們新增的LTE-GMP Agent正好可以當做video stream的緩衝。結果的部分是利用網路工具NS-3來模擬新增LTE-GMP Agent的換手機制,將實驗探討在不同的Mobility、Overlapping、Noise、Data rate下所產生的PLR與video stream的handover (HO) delay,由模擬結果顯示,我們新增Agent的機制可以有效的降低在群播網路環境下的PLR與 video HO delay,最後再進一步提出MSE (Mean Square Error) model來計算PSNR (Peak Signal Noise Ratio),可以看出我們在群播網路環境下新增LTE-GMP Agent時可以有效提升video quality (PSNR)。
On an LTE-A (Long Term Evolution-Advanced) multicast network, a moving UE may handover form a multicast group under a Serving eNodeB to another multicast group under a Target eNodeB. In this environment, UE will send IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) join messages repeatedly to a Multicast Router (MR). IGMP join messages could fail to transmit due to high noise and interference in a wireless network. Thus, UE cannot receive multicast video stream when UE has moved to another multicast group under a Target eNodeB. In order to reduce the number of retransmitted IGMP join messages, we add an LTE-GMP (Group Management Protocol) agent in the wired end where PGW is located. LTE-GMP agent could act as a proxy for UE to send out the IGMP join messages. This will guarantee that IGMP join messages won’t fail to transmit to MR. On the other hand, the size of overlapping area among eNodeBs will affect video quality because of handover failure due to signal loss. The added LTE-GMP agent could buffer a multicast video stream during UE’s handover. We perform NS-3 simulation to simulate the proposed algorithm of LTE-GMP agent. We discuss the performance in terms of PLR (Packet Loss Ratio) and handover (HO) delay of a multicast video stream by changing mobility speed, overlapping areas, noise, and data rate. Simulation results show that the added LTE-GMP agent can reduce the PLR and video delay significantly. In the end, we use an MSE (Mean Square Error) model to calculate PSNR (Peak Signal Noise Ratio). PSNR results demonstrate that the proposed LTE-GMP agent can effectively improve video quality in terms of PSNR.
審定書 i
致謝 ii
摘要 iii
Abstract iv
目錄 v
圖表目錄 viii
第一章 導論 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 研究方法 2
1.3 章節介紹 3
第二章  LTE-A的群播換手機制 4
2.1 LTE架構 4
2.2 LTE群播換手機制 6
2.3 環境干擾因素 10
2.3.1 傳播路徑損失 11
2.3.2 都普勒效應 12
2.3.3 MPEG 12
2.4 相關研究 13
2.4.1 速度對換手的影響 13
2.4.2 Delay對換手的影響 14
2.4.3 群播換手 16
2.5 本論文機制 18
第三章 具有群組管理的群播換手機制 19
3.1 系統架構 19
3.2 LTE-GMP 21
3.3 LTE-GMP 的HO時序 23
3.3.1 建立連線 23
3.3.2 GMP Agent的Handover時序 25
3.3.3 GMP Agent的重新連線時序 27
3.4 環境因素對GMP Agent的影響 31
3.4.1 Noise 31
3.4.2 Mobility 33
3.4.3 HO Overlapping 區域 34
3.4.4 PSNR數學分析 36
第四章 模擬與結果討論 38
4.1 換手的模擬環境 38
4.2 Handover的Pseudo Code 39
4.3 模擬結果與討論 50
4.3.1 Noise與Data Rate的影響 50
4.3.2 Overlapping區域與移動速度的影響 55
4.3.3 PSNR的分析比較 65
第五章 結論與未來工作 71
5.1 結論 71
5.2 未來工作 73
Reference 74
Acronyms 80
Index 81
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[20]Woojin Ahn, Yongsu Gwak, and Young Yong Kim, “A Low-Complexity Delay Injection Algorithm For Improving TCP Performance During LTE Intra Handover,” International Conference on Information Networking (ICOIN), Bali, Indonesia, pp. 177-181, Feb. 1-3, 2012.
[21]Liang Zhang, Takao Okamawari, and Teruya Fujii, “Performance Evaluation of TCP and UDP during LTE Handover,” IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), Shanghai, China, pp. 1993-1997, Apr. 1-4, 2012.
[22]Hyun-Ho Choi, Ohyoung Song, Yeon-Kyung Park, and Jung-Ryun Lee, “Performance Evaluation of Opportunistic Vertical Handover Considering On–Off Characteristics of VoIP Traffic,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 59, issue 6, pp. 3115-3121, Jul. 2010.
[23]Qi Qi, Yufei Cao, Tonghong Li, Xiaomin Zhu, and Jingyu Wang, “Soft Handover Mechanism Based on RTP Parallel Transmission for Mobile IPTV Services,” IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, vol. 56, issue 4, pp. 2276-2281, Nov. 2010.
[24]Neil Sinclair, David Harle, James Irvine, Ian A. Glover, James Irvine, and Robert C. Atkinson, “An Advanced SOM Algorithm Applied to Handover Management Within LTE,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 62, issue 5, pp. 1883-1894, Jun. 2013.
[25]Xenofon Fafoutis and Vasilios A. Siris, “Handover Incentives for Self-Interested WLANs with Overlapping Coverage,” IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 11, issue 12, pp. 2033-2046, Dec. 2012.
[26]Leo Bhebhe and Zhonghong Ou, “Impact of Packet Forwarding during Inter-eNodeB Handover via X2 Interface,” IEEE International Globecom Workshops (GC Wkshps), Houston, America, pp. 615-619, Dec. 5-9, 2011.
[27]Moneeb Gohar, Sang Il Choi, and Seok Joo Koh, “Fast Handover using Multicast Handover Agents in PMIPv6-based Wireless Networks,” International Conference on Information Networking (ICOIN), Barcelona, Spain, pp. 367-372, Jan. 26-28, 2011.
[28]Moneeb Gohar, Seok Joo Koh, Tae-Won Um, and Hyun-Woo Lee, “Seamless Multicast Handover in PMIPv6-based Wireless Networks,” International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT), Phoenix Park, Ireland, vol. 1, pp. 502-507, Feb. 7-10, 2010.
[29]Ji Hoon Lee, Sangheon Pack, Taekyoung Kwon, and Yanghee Choi, “Reducing Handover Delay by Location Management in Mobile WiMAX Multicast and Broadcast Services,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 60, issue 2, pp. 605-617, Feb. 2011.
[30]Kai-Hsiang Hu, Huai-Lei Fu, and Phone Lin, “MBS Zone Configuration Schemes for Wireless Multicast and Broadcast Service,” International Journal of Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, vol. 10, issue 12, pp. 1589-1604, Dec. 2010.
[31]Min-Gon Kim, Yazan M. Allawi, Jung-Sook Jang, Jin-Kyu Kang, Sang-Cheol Lee, and Minho Kang, “Enhanced Handover Mechanism for Multicast and Broadcast Services in IEEE 802.16e Systems,” International Conference on Data Communication Networking (DCNET), Athens, Greece, pp. 1-7, Jul. 26-28, 2010.
[32]Ngoc-Duy Nguyenand and Christian Bonnet, “Service Continuity for eMBMS in LTE/LTE-Advanced Network: Standard Analysis and Supplement,” IEEE Consumer Communications and Networking Conference (CCNC), Las Vegas, America, pp. 219-224, Jan. 10-13, 2014.
[33]Dong-Hoi Kim, “Adaptive Handover Scheme for Evolved Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Services in Long-Term Evolution Networks,” IET Communications, vol. 8, issue 16, pp. 2933-2942, Nov. 6, 2014.
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