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研究生:陶國棟
研究生(外文):Kuo-tung Tao
論文名稱:分析靜止站立時腦波訊號與測力板指標的關聯性
論文名稱(外文):Analyzing the association between the EEG signals and the force plate measures during quiet standing
指導教授:嚴成文
指導教授(外文):Chen-wen Yen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:機械與機電工程學系研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:114
中文關鍵詞:獨立成分分析Welch’s Method壓力中心指標腦電圖訊號相關係數
外文關鍵詞:COPcorrelation coefficientICAWelch’s MethodEEG
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本文透過測力板與12個頻道的腦波量測,研究探討腦電圖訊號(EEG)與靜止站立時的平衡感指標,找出兩者之間的關聯性。
本文量測對象為15位健康的年輕人,實驗內容為靜止站立於測力板進行開眼與閉眼動作,實驗開始時站上測力板保持安靜且雙手輕鬆放在身體兩側,接著告知受測者直視前方2公尺處的黑色標誌點,開眼時間為10分鐘,結束後離開測力板休息5分鐘,休息完後保持同樣姿勢站在測力板上,閉上眼睛10分鐘。本文使用Welch’s Method作為頻譜功率密度(PSD)分析的演算法,並利用獨立成分分析(ICA)及移除異常視窗來消除雜訊的影響,降低腦波訊號量測時造成的干擾。
利用8種測力板的指標來代表平衡特徵,其中6種為壓力中心指標(COP),分別為壓力中心移動面積(sway area)、壓力中心移動距離(mean distance)、壓力中心移動速度(mean velocity)、壓力中心前後移動速度(mean velocity AP)、壓力中心左右移動速度(mean velocity ML)、壓力中心移動頻率(mean frequency),另外加入了自行設計的地面反作用力指標(GRF)方程式來評估平衡能力。
本文分為4種腦波頻譜與平衡感指標的比較方式,第一種為計算開眼時的相關係數(correlation coefficient),第二種為閉眼時的相關係數,第三種比較腦波開眼與閉眼的差異值及平衡感指標開眼與閉眼的差異值之間的相關係數,第四種將開眼與閉眼差異值除上開眼的值,再比較腦波與平衡感的相關係數。
根據比較結果得到以下結論:第一,壓力中心移動速度與腦波多數頻道4~30赫茲能量呈現負向相關性。第二,壓力中心移動速度與α頻帶同樣呈現負向相關性。第三,腦波多數頻道與壓力中心移動速度的最佳相關性頻帶落在14~18赫茲之間。
By using a force platform and a 12-channel EEG measuring device, this work investigates the correlation between EEG activities and posture balance features.
Fifteen young and healthy people agreed to quietly stand on a force platform with their eyes open and closed. Initially, with their arms relaxed on the side of the body and eyes open, participants were asked to look straight ahead fixating their gaze at a black spot positioned at eye level at a distance of approximately 2 m. This period lasts for 10 min. Next, after 5 min of rest, the same participant was instructed to repeat the same quiet standing task with eyes closed for 10 min. The frequency response of the EEG was computed by the Welch’s method. To eliminate the artifacts, independent component analysis and an outlier method have been employed to suppress the influences of noise and eliminate contaminated signal intervals.
This work computed eight force platform features to characterize the posture stability. Six of these eight stability features were derived from the trajectory of the center of pressure (COP). These six features are the sway area, mean distance, mean velocity, mean velocity in the anterior-posterior direction, mean velocity in the medial-lateral direction, mean frequency of the COP. Based on the ground reaction force (GRF), this study also proposes two additional features to assess the posture stability.
This work investigates four types of correlations between the EEG spectra and stability features. The first (eyes open correlation) and second (eyes closed correlation) were computed directly from the eyes open and eyes closed conditions, respectively. The third (variation correlation) computes the correlation between the eyes open and eyes closed difference of the EEG response and the eyes open and eyes closed differences of the stability features. The fourth (variation ratio correlation) calculate the eyes open and eyes closed difference divided by eyes open, and computes the correlation between the EEG response and stability features.
The results can be summarized as follows. First, negative variation correlations between the EEG energy of the 4-30 Hz band and the COP mean velocity features were identified in several EEG channels. Second, similar finding also occur on the α band of the EEG signal. Third, for the eyes open and eyes closed correlations, the COP mean velocity features are positively correlated with the 14~18Hz frequency band energy for several EEG channels.
摘要 iii
Abstract iv
目錄 vi
圖目錄 viii
表目錄 xi
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 研究動機與目的 2
1.3 文獻回顧 2
1.4 論文架構 6
第二章 實驗流程與量測儀器 7
2.1 實驗對象 7
2.2 實驗流程 7
2.3 三軸測力板 8
2.3.1 三軸測力板量測機台 8
2.3.2 三軸測力板訊號擷取 9
2.4 多頻道腦波量測 10
2.5 心電圖訊號量測 13
第三章 多頻道腦波分析與平衡感指標 15
3.1 多頻道腦波訊號處理 15
3.1.1 多頻道腦波訊號處理流程 15
3.1.2 利用心電圖訊號同步化三軸測力板與多頻道腦波訊號 16
3.1.3 獨立成分分析(ICA) 17
3.1.4 Welch’s Method 19
3.1.5 移除異常視窗(Artifacts Removal) 23
3.2 多頻道腦波頻譜分析 26
3.3 平衡感指標 28
第四章 結果與討論 32
4.1 4~30赫茲絕對能量與平衡感指標比較 33
4.2 α頻帶的絕對能量與平衡感指標比較 35
4.3 α頻帶的相對能量與平衡感指標比較 38
4.4 β頻帶的絕對能量與平衡感指標比較 42
4.5 搜尋與平衡感指標最佳相關性的頻帶範圍 47
4.6 壓力中心移動速度表格統整 49
第五章 壓力中心移動速度相關性整理 55
5.1 開眼的頻帶能量與壓力中心速度之關係 56
5.2 閉眼的頻帶能量與壓力中心速度之關係 62
5.3 開眼-閉眼的頻帶能量與壓力中心速度之關係 68
5.4 開眼-閉眼/開眼的頻帶能量與壓力中心速度之關係 74
第六章 結論與建議 80
參考文獻 82
附錄 84
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