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研究生:石可妮
研究生(外文):Endang Koni Suryaningsih
論文名稱(外文):Indonesia Version of Prenatal Attachment Inventory (PAI): A Preliminary Study
指導教授:高千惠高千惠引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chien-Huei Kao
口試委員:李亭亭高美玲
口試委員(外文):Ting- Ting LeeMeei-Ling Gau
口試日期:2015-05-18
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北護理健康大學
系所名稱:護理助產研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:護理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:英文
論文頁數:104
外文關鍵詞:IndonesiaPrenatal Attachment Inventorycontent validityreliability
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Aims and objectives To translate the Prenatal Attachment Inventory (PAI) into Indonesian and assess its psychometric properties.
Background The PAI measures maternal affectionate attachment. This scale displays the most appropriate indicators associated with attachment and has been widely adopted in different countries and different fields for measuring the maternal-fetal attachment.
Methods and Design The PAI was translated into Indonesian using the translation and back-translation according to Brislin’s guidelines and the translation result was reviewed by a committee. The judgment of the expert panel was established to determine the content validity using Content Validity Index (CVI). In round 1, the experts scored each item based on a four-point Likert scae. In round 2, the same experts reevaluated the revised item based on the recommendation in round 1. Then I-CVI and S-CVI/UA were applied. To generate support the construct validity of criterion-referenced measures, the contrasting group approach was used. The convenience sample from the accessible population of 130 pregnant women in five health centers in Yogyakarta, Indonesia was used. Sixty pregnant women less than 20 weeks’ gestation and sixty pregnant women after 30 weeks’ gestation agreed to participate in this study. A test of internal consistency was statistically performed to determine the reliability of this method. Independent t-test and one-way ANOVA were also performed to explore the scores among its variables.
Results The Indonesian version of PAI (IPAI) contains 21 items and possesses high internal consistency; the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was .937. There was a significant difference between the groups in the total score (p < .05), with women in late pregnancy having the higher scores.
Conclusions The findings suggest that the Indonesian version of PAI (IPAI) is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring the levels of attachment and affectionate ties between mothers and their unborn babies.
Implications Valid instrument is available to either midwife or nurse researchers who are exploring prenatal attachment. The IPAI provides midwives with a useful tool to explore the information regarding the maternal-fetal attachment and promote maternal well-being during child bearing.

Contents
Page

Abstract i
Content ii
Content of Figure iv
Content of Table v
Appendices vi

Chapter I Introduction
1-1. Background 1
1-2. Problem statement 2
1-3. Purpose of the study 5
1-4. Significant of the study 5

Chapter II Literature Review
2-1. Brief history of maternal-fetal attachment 7
2-2. Definition of maternal-fetal attachment and related factors 9
2-3. The studies related to maternal-fetal attachment 14
2-4. Prenatal Attachment Inventory (PAI) 16
2-5. Translation and Back Translation 19
2-6. Content Validity 23
2-7. Construct validity 25
2-8. Reliability Test 27
2-9. Introduction of Indonesia and Yogyakarta 28

Chapter III Research Methodology
3-1. Study Design 32
3-2. Study Setting 32
3-3. Sampling and Sample Size 33
3-4. Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria 34
3-5. Research Tools 34
3-6. Data Collection Processes 39
3-7. Data Analysis 42
3-8. Ethical Consideration 42

Chapter IV Results
4-1. The demographic information of the respondents 44
4-2. The Indonesian version of PAI 46
4-2-1. Translation and back translation 47
4-2-2. Validation tests of Indonesian version of PAI 48
4-2-3. Reliability test of Indonesian version of PAI 55

Chapter V Discussion
5-1. Translation and back translation 57
5-2. Validation of Indonesian version of PAI 58
5-3. The reliability of Indonesian version of PAI 59

Chapter VI Conclusion and Recommendation
6-1. Conclusion 60
6-2. Limitation 61
6-3. Implications of this study 61
6-4. Recommendations 62
References 64




Figure

Page
Figure 2.1. The Map of Indonesia and Yogyakarta 28
Figure 3.1. Flow chart of data collection 41


Tables
Page
Table 3.1. Total health center and participants in this study 33
Table 3.2. The example of four criteria on a 4-point Likert scale 38
Table 4.1 Demographic information of this study from two groups 46
Table 4.2. Rated by expert for content validity in the first round 50
Table 4.3. Final Rated by expert for content validity in the second round 53
Table 4.4. Mean, standard deviation and Independent t-test between two groups in total score
54
Table 4.5. Reliability test 56

APPENDICES
Page
Appendix I Original Instrument of PAI 69
Appendix II Time Schedule 71
Appendix III Permission to use Instrument and Grant to use the Instrument 72
Appendix IV Background of two translatorsInstrument 75
Appendix V Background of the Three experts 76
Appendix VI Cover letter for experts panels 78
Appendix VII Response form from expert 80
Appendix VIII Institutional Review Board (IRB) 85
Appendix IX Consent form for respondent (English and Indonesian) 86
Appendix X Demographic Information (English and Indonesian) 88
Appendix XI Translation and back translation result 92
Appendix XII Final Instrument based on committee review 94
Appendix XIII Individually rating of three experts 95
Appendix XIV The final result of Indonesian version of PAI 102


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