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研究生:吳靜芳
論文名稱:Monetary Practice and Community-Making in William Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice
指導教授:金守民金守民引用關係孫宓孫宓引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:英文
論文頁數:69
中文關鍵詞:economic exchange; community making; feudal society; nascent capitalism
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摘要
本論文旨在將社群的建構放置於經濟交易的脈絡之中來解讀莎士比亞的威尼斯商人一劇,同時檢視劇中兩個在宗教文化上壁壘分明的對立社群團體—基督徒與猶太人夏洛克—如何透過經濟交易在法律、國族、以及社會關係等層面互相角力,進一步論述經濟交易如何影響社群建構。第一章探討莎士比亞如何透過近代歐洲商業中樞威尼斯一地蓬勃發展的貿易活動與資本主義代表來暗喻當時的都鐸英國倫敦。都鐸英國正從一個以土地為經濟基礎結構的封建社會走向資金、貿易為主的資本主義社會。經濟結構的變化連帶影響財富的轉移與社會階級的流動,本章進一步探討莎士比亞如何透過劇中角色互動來反映了資本主義早期商業資產階級與高利貸者以及貴族之間的矛盾。本論文的第二章分析資本主義的發展,經濟基礎結構改變進而影響人與人的社會關係,不同於封建社會人的關係是建立在家族血緣、義務、效忠,莎士比亞描繪劇中人物關係是建立在各種的bonds,包含商業契約與情感的結合。此外,經濟交易與金錢借貸連結這兩個對立的社群,卻也點出彼此在經濟上互相依賴但在社會關係上又相互不容的矛盾。基督徒社群以自己的大方、慷慨、慈善自豪,並以此來彰顯自己和夏洛克唯利是圖、冷酷無情的高利貸不同。但是本章進一步探討這兩個對立的社群無論是在金錢利益的追求與人際關係的商業化,其實相差無幾。

Abstract
This thesis argues that the formation of community in Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice is based on economic exchange and examines how economic exchange entangles characters in legal, national and interpersonal relations. The Merchant of Venice dramatizes a confrontation between two religiously demarcated bourgeois groups in Venice, which in turn, allegorizes the changing socio-economic situation in Tudor England. This thesis aims to employ the economic and exchange perspectives and argues the formation of community in Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice is based on economic exchange and how human relations through exchange are reified in a nascent capitalistic society. This thesis contains two main chapters. Chapter One examines how the shift of wealth and social power--from possession of land to accumulation of money--had greatly impacted the social order, and given rise to anxiety between social classes. I take into account the historical context of a developing capitalist economy in early modern England--a context for which Shakespeare uses Venice as a foreign and substitute site to reflect on his contemporary England. Chapter Two argues that the formation of community in The Merchant of Venice is based on economic exchange. I draw on C. L. Barber's “The Merchant and the Jew of Venice: Wealth’s Communion and an Intruder” and W. H. Auden's "Brothers and Others" to examine how the formation of community is dictated by economic relations. I also examine how the characters enact and embody the economic conceptions in Tudor England and how the reified value system influences the social relations of the characters, such as commodified father/daughter relations, master/servant relations, love relations, and marriage relations.

Table of Contents


Abstract
Acknowledgements
Introduction...............................................................................................................1
Chapter One: The Historical Context of a Developing Capitalist Economy: Venice
and London.........................................................................................12
Chapter Two:Community-Making in The Merchant of Venice.............................30
Conclusion ...............................................................................................................64
Works Cited...............................................................................................................70


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