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研究生:陳伯青
研究生(外文):Chen. Bo Ching
論文名稱:台灣閩南語「遘」的語法化和詞彙化
論文名稱(外文):Kau3 in Taiwanese Southern Min:A Case Study of Grammaticalization and Lexicalization
指導教授:連金發連金發引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chinfa Lien
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:語言學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:語言學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:英文
論文頁數:120
中文關鍵詞:有夠語法化閩南語夠額無夠
外文關鍵詞:kau3u7-kau3grammaticalizationSouthern Minkau3-giah8bo5-kau3
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關於語法化「降類」的研究通常指出一個範疇性的斜坡:主要範疇(>中間範疇)>次要範疇 (Hopper and Traugott 2003: 107)。關於此一範疇性斜坡的完整架構,前人的研究無論是從語法方面或是語意方面的探討皆已汗牛充棟(Heine and Kuteva 2002)。然而,關於主要範疇>次要範疇或主要範疇>中間範疇不完整斜坡的情形則較少被討論。本篇論文主要以台灣閩南語的kau3「遘」為基底來討論此些不完整結構。台灣閩南語的kau3「遘」有五種用法。主要動詞、介詞、動詞補語、形容詞以及副詞。前兩種表示「到達」的意思、後三種則表示「足夠」的意思。而且形容詞和副詞的kau3「遘」進一步和u7「有」或 bo5「無」詞彙化為一個單詞。本文語料主要以早期閩南語和現代閩南語為本。早期閩南語包括明清閩南語戲文和日治時期的語苑;而現代閩南語則以胡萬川先生編撰的閩南語故事集以及閩南語電視劇為主。方法論上則以語法化的觀點討論現代台灣閩南語kau3「遘」的五種用法的關連,並指出這五種用法是kau3「遘」進行語法化的結果。本文將會將重點放在此五種用法的動態關聯,亦即提供研究者有關於kau3「遘」的意義和其語法化路經及分布的關聯。
Researchers of grammaticalization have often suggested that decategorialization
can be manifested as a cline of categoriality, statable as: major category
(>intermediate category) > minor category (Hopper and Traugott 2003: 107).
Previous studies investigated the full schema from a variety of perspectives and
considerable concerns have arisen over the semantic and syntactic behavior, which
yield fruitful results (Heine and Kuteva 2002). However, researches which have
documented the fragmented schema, major category > minor category and major
category >intermediate category, are scant. Therefore, the aim of this thesis attempts
to discuss kau3 as an intriguing word showing the phenomenon of the fragmented
schema in Taiwanese Southern Min (henceforth TSM).
Kau3 can be classified into five main groups. To start with, kau3 is a main verb
‘arrive’. Next, kau3 is a preposition ‘at’, and ‘to’. Next, kau3 is a complement meaning
‘enough’. Next, kau3 is an adjective ‘enough’. Lastly, kau3 is an adverb ‘enough’, as
well. The last two kau3 denoting enough mostly follows u7 ‘have’ or bo5 ‘not have’
successively. Put differently, the last two uses of kau3 are complement in semantic
aspect, but kau3 gets lexicalized with verb in syntactic frame into an adjective and an
adverb.
The research involves reviewing the corpora that comprise the early and modern
SM data. Early Southern Min data include nine SM playscripts and Go En; modern
Southern Min data includes SM story series compiled by Hu Wan Chuan et al, and
transcripts of SM soap operas. The analysis of this study was based on
grammaticalization to indicate the relationship between the five sets of categories
kau3. Result of this study shows the grammaticalization paths of the five sets of
categories kau3.
To conclude, this paper may be of importance to account for the dynamic
relationship between the five sets of categories kau3, and providing researchers with a
better understanding of how the meaning about kau3 is related to its
grammaticalization paths and distribution.
Table of Contents
Chinese Abstract ......................................................................................................................... i
English Abstract ........................................................................................................................ ii
Acknowledgement ..................................................................................................................... v
List of Abbreviation ................................................................................................................. vi
CHAPTER 1: Introduction ........................................................................................................ 1
1.1 Background ...................................................................................................................... 1
1.2 Research Questions: ........................................................................................................ 5
1.3 Organization of this Thesis .............................................................................................. 6
CHAPTER 2: Five uses of kau3 in TSM ................................................................................... 8
2.1 Verb ................................................................................................................................. 8
2.1.1 Verb: to reach (a place) ............................................................................................ 9
2.1.2 Verb: up to (a figure or time) ................................................................................. 10
2.1.3 Verb: to win at card ................................................................................................ 12
2.2 Preposition ..................................................................................................................... 12
2.2.1 Preposition: to reach (a place) ................................................................................ 14
2.2.2 Preposition: up to (a figure or a specific time) ...................................................... 16
2.3 Complement ................................................................................................................... 17
2.4 The component of an adjective construction ................................................................. 19
2.5 The component of an adverb construction ..................................................................... 21
2.6 The uses of characters .................................................................................................... 23
2.6.1 Kau3 in Li Jing Ji 荔鏡記and Li Zhi Ji 荔枝記 ................................................... 24
2.6.2 Kau3 in Jin Hua Nu 金花女, Su Liu Niang 蘇六娘, and Tong Chuang Qin Shu Ji
同窗琴書記: .................................................................................................................... 25
2.6.3 Kau3 in Long Bi De Xi Qu 龍彼得戲曲: ............................................................... 27
2.6.4 Kau3 in dictionaries ................................................................................................ 28
2.6.5 Kau3 in Go En 語苑: .............................................................................................. 29
2.6.6 Summary ................................................................................................................ 31
2.7 Conclusion of the chapter .............................................................................................. 35
CHAPTER 3: Grammaticalization of preposition, and complement kau3 .............................. 37
3.1 The uses of dao in Mandarin Chinese ........................................................................... 38
3.1.1 Verb: reach a place, and up to a figure or a specific time ...................................... 38
3.1.2 Preposition: to ........................................................................................................ 39
3.1.3 Complement: a resultative state .............................................................................. 39
3.1.4 Adjective: thoughtful. ............................................................................................ 40
3.1.5 Summary of section 3.1 .......................................................................................... 41
3.2 Grammaticalization of dao in Mandarin Chinese .......................................................... 42
3.2.1 Previous analysis of dao in Mandarin Chinese ...................................................... 42
3.2.2 Grammaticalization of the preposition dao ............................................................ 42
3.2.3 Grammaticalization of complement dao ................................................................ 44
3.2.4 Grammaticalization of the adjective dao ................................................................ 47
3.3 Grammaticalization of preposition, and complement kau3 ............................................ 49
3.3.1The grammaticalization path of the preposition kau3 .............................................. 50
3.3.2 grammaticalization path of complement kau3 ........................................................ 51
3.4 The complement kau3 in negative contexts .................................................................... 55
3.5 Conclusion of the chapter .............................................................................................. 60
CHAPTER 4: Lexicalization of kau3-giah8 ............................................................................. 62
4.1 Giah8 in Modern South Min .......................................................................................... 62
4.1.1 Giah8 ....................................................................................................................... 62
4.1.2 Kau3-giah8 .............................................................................................................. 64
4.1.3 U7-giah8 and bo5-giah8 ........................................................................................... 65
4.1.4 Ho2-giah8 ................................................................................................................ 66
4.2 Giah8 in Go En .............................................................................................................. 67
4.2.1 Giah8 ....................................................................................................................... 67
4.2.2 Kau3-giah8 .............................................................................................................. 69
4.3 Lexicalization paths of kau3-giah8 ................................................................................. 76
4.3.1 grammaticalization path of complement kau3-giah8 ............................................... 77
4.3.2 grammaticalization path of adjective kau3-giah8 .................................................... 79
4.3.3 The grammaticalization path of the adverb kau3-giah8 .......................................... 81
4.4 Conclusion of the chapter .............................................................................................. 83
CHAPTER 5: Grammaticalization of component of an adjective and adverb construction
kau3(u7-kau3 and bo5-kau3) ...................................................................................................... 85
5.1 The component of adjective and adverb construction kau3 in TSM .............................. 85
5.1.1 The component of adjective construction ............................................................... 85
5.1.2 Component of adverb construction......................................................................... 86
5.2 The historical data of adjective and adverb construction kau3 in TSM ......................... 89
5.2.1 The adjective dao in MC ........................................................................................ 89
5.2.2 Kau3 in adjective and adverb construction in Go En .............................................. 91
5.3. The analyses of u7-kau3/bo5-kau3 .................................................................................. 92
5.3.1 The syntactic analyses of u7-kau3 ........................................................................... 92
5.3.2 The semantic analyses of u7-kau3 ........................................................................... 94
5.3.3 The phonological analyses of u7-kau3 ..................................................................... 96
5.4 The distribution of u7-kau3 and bo5-kau3 in Modern Southern Min and Go En ............ 98
5.4.1 Frequency ............................................................................................................... 98
5.4.2 Synchronic and diachronic studies of frequency ................................................... 99
5.4.3 The distribution of u7-kau3 and bo5-kau3 in Modern Southern Min and Go En .... 101
5.5 U7-kau3 and bo5-kau3 in Modern Southern Min ........................................................... 103
5.5.1 U7-kau3 ................................................................................................................. 103
5.5.2 Bo5-kau3 ................................................................................................................ 106
5.5.3 Subjectivity of u7-kau3 .......................................................................................... 108
5. 6 Conclusion of the chapter ........................................................................................... 110
CHAPTER 6: Conclusion ..................................................................................................... 112
References ............................................................................................................................. 116
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