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研究生:張銘訓
研究生(外文):Chang, Ming-Hsun
論文名稱:臺灣鱸鰻與黑鰻養殖產業經濟分析
論文名稱(外文):Economic Analysis of Anguilla mamorata, Anguilla bicolor pacifica and Anguilla bicolor bicolor Cultures in Taiwan
指導教授:繆峽繆峽引用關係
指導教授(外文):Miao, Sha
口試委員:繆峽葉信平冉繁華黃振庭
口試委員(外文):Miao, ShaYen, Hsiao-PanNan, Fan-HuaHuang, Cheng-Ting
口試日期:2015-06-30
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:水產養殖學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:漁業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:99
中文關鍵詞:鱸鰻黑鰻經濟分析典型相關分析生產函數
外文關鍵詞:Anguilla marmorataAnguilla bicolorEconomic analysisCanonical correlation analysisCobb-Douglas production function
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自從全球日本鰻野生資源量減少後,為了因應日本鰻養殖產業缺口,臺灣開始投入鱸鰻與黑鰻養殖。目前鱸鰻與黑鰻養殖為臺灣新興養殖漁業,而一項養殖產業發展,唯有經濟面及生產面雙管齊下,產業方可永續經營。因此,本研究針對產業進行問卷調查,收集產業之生物性與經濟性資料,應用經濟學及多變量統計學原理進行分析,以期瞭解鱸鰻與黑鰻養殖產業獲利關鍵及產業現階段與未來之發展策略。
依不同物種及放養規格分為鱸鰻鰻線、鱸鰻幼鰻、黑鰻鰻線及黑鰻幼鰻等四種養殖型態進行分析,根據分析結果發現,從事鱸鰻鰻線養殖需較長養殖週期,生產成本投入較高,但鱸鰻產品較具經濟價值,故使鱸鰻鰻線養殖在生產收益表現較佳,平均益本比為1.93;從事鱸鰻幼鰻養殖初期投入魚苗成本較高,但放養幼鰻階段鰻苗可節省從鰻線培養至幼鰻之養殖時間,相較在飼料、水電及人事成本投入較鱸鰻鰻線養殖低。在生產成本投入較低情況下,鱸鰻幼鰻養殖生產收益表現較鱸鰻鰻線養殖好,平均益本比為2.08;從事黑鰻鰻線養殖從放養到收成平均為13.8個月較鱸鰻養殖短,原因為黑鰻養殖主要上市規格為4 ~ 5尾/公斤不同於鱸鰻養殖,養殖週期較短使黑鰻鰻線養殖在生產成本投入較鱸鰻養殖低。生產收益方面雖表現較鱸鰻養殖不佳,但益本比平均大於1為1.63,表示成本投入仍具有利潤;從事黑鰻幼鰻養殖雖養殖週期較黑鰻鰻線養殖短,在飼料、水電及人事成本投入上較黑鰻鰻線養殖低,但養殖初期魚苗成本投入遠高於黑鰻鰻線養殖,再加上黑鰻幼鰻養殖放養密度投入較低,成本投入無法達到有效利用,導致最後黑鰻幼鰻養殖在生產收益方面表現較不佳。
藉由典型相關分析結果發現,鱸鰻養殖生物性及經濟性變數呈現正相關,當放養密度及活存率提高,會提高產業經營效益,但目前鱸鰻養殖業者活存率普遍偏低,需改善養殖管理模式提升活存率;黑鰻養殖部分,生物性及經濟性變數也呈現正相關,當放養密度及活存率提高,會提高產業經營效益,目前黑鰻養殖需考慮市場需求量多寡來調整放養密度投入。Cobb-Douglas生產函數分析結果顯示,鱸鰻之生產彈性為1.041,黑鰻為1.1368,表示鱸鰻與黑鰻養殖產業皆呈現規模報酬遞增情況,均具經濟規模效應,可考慮擴大養殖規模。
本研究最後根據分析結果給予建議並應用SWOT分析,研擬未來臺灣鱸鰻與黑鰻養殖產業發展策略。據此,臺灣鱸鰻與黑鰻養殖正處於產業生命週期的初始期,目前產業發展受限於鰻苗來源不穩定、養殖活存率低、銷售通路不完善等,尚有許多問題需要克服。除技術面之研發與掌握生產關鍵技術外,也必須審慎考量產業發展之短、中、長期策略,以期臺灣鱸鰻與黑鰻養殖產業之永續經營。

Since the natural stocks of Japanese eels have drastically decreased, Taiwan began farming the A. marmorata and A. bicolor. In the beginning, both the sort of technology and the economics of its aquaculture are most important to do as a basis of the industrial development. Therefore, this study is focused on the biology and economics which affect the profit in the farming of A. marmorata and A. bicolor by means of an industrial survey and analysis.
Depending on different species and stocking size, the study is divided into four farming types for analysis, including glass eels of A. marmorata, elvers of A. marmorata, glass eels of A. bicolor and elvers of A. bicolor. According to the results, glass eels of A. marmorata culture takes longer farming cycle, higher production costs, but have better profit. The average of benefit-cost ratio in glass eels of A. marmorata culture is 1.93. Elvers of A. marmorata culture takes higher fry costs in the beginning, but the costs of feed, water-electricity and labor are lower than glass eels of A. marmorata culture. This result in elvers of A. marmorata culture have the better profit than the glass eels of A. marmorata culture. The average of benefit-cost ratio in elvers of A. marmorata culture is 2.08. The average farming cycle of glass eels of A. bicolor culture is 13.8 months, lower than A. marmorata culture. This make the glass eels of A. bicolor culture takes the lower production costs. Although, the glass eels of A. bicolor culture have lower profit, but its average of benefit-cost ratio is 1.63, it represents the cost of inputs still has profit. Elvers of A. bicolor culture takes higher fry costs in the beginning, but the costs of feed, water-electricity and labor are lower than glass eels of A. bicolor culture. The stocking density of elvers of A. bicolor culture is low, that the cost of inputs can not achieve effective utilization. This lead to the profit of elvers of A. bicolor culture is not as good as glass eels of A. bicolor culture.
According to the result of canonical correlation analysis, the biological and economy variables of A. marmorata and A. bicolor cultures show a positive correlation. When stocking density and survival rate increase, the industry operating efficiency also increase. Accoding to the analysis result of the Cobb-Douglas production function, both of the industrial culture of A. marmorata and A. bicolor, returns to scale are increasing.
The study finally based on the results give advice and application of SWOT analysis elaboration the industry development strategy. A. marmorata and A. bicolor cultures in Taiwan are in the initial stage of the industry life cycle, industrial development are limited by instability of fry source, lower farming survival rate and sales channels imperfect, there are still many problems to be overcome. In addition to develop the technical side and master the key technologies of production, but also must carefully consider the industrial development strategies.

謝辭 I
中文摘要 III
Abstract IV
目錄 VI
圖目錄 VIII
表目錄 IX
第壹章、緒論 1
第一節、研究背景與動機 1
第二節、研究目的 2
第三節、研究架構與流程 3
第貳章、前言 5
第一節、鱸鰻與黑鰻生物性特徵 5
第二節、臺灣鱸鰻與黑鰻養殖產業概況 7
第三節、國際鰻魚產業概況 12
第參章、材料與方法 18
第一節、資料來源 18
第二節、統計分析方法 20
第肆章、統計分析結果 27
第一節、問卷訪查基礎資料 27
第二節、基礎統計資料分析 29
第三節、變方分析 39
第四節、主成分分析 47
第五節、區隔函數分析 53
第六節、典型相關分析 61
第七節、生產函數分析 66
第伍章、討論 69
第一節、臺灣鱸鰻與黑鰻養殖生產經濟 69
第二節、典型相關分析討論 75
第三節、生產函數分析討論 76
第四節、臺灣鱸鰻與黑鰻養殖產業面臨困難 77
第五節、臺灣鱸鰻與黑鰻養殖產業發展策略分析 78
第陸章、結論與建議 84
第一節、結論 84
第二節、建議 86
第三節、未來研究方向 87
第柒章、參考文獻 88
附錄 93

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Williamson, G.R. and Boëtius, J. 1994. The eels Anguilla marmorata and A. japonica in the Pearl River, China, and Hong Kong. Asian Fisheries Science 6: 129-138.
Wang, S. 1998. China Red Data Book of Endangered Animals. Pisces. National Environmental Protection Agency.
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三、網路資料
日本財務省農林水產省統計情報。2010-2014。東京,日本財務省。取自http://www.maff.go.jp/j/tokei/index.html(引用日期2015年3月)
日本養殖新聞。2009-2014。國內外玻璃鰻入池量。取自http://unaginews.blog.so-net.ne.jp/2014-07-04(引用日期2014年8月)
行政院農委會漁業署。養殖魚種放養量累計表。臺北,行政院農委會漁業署。取自http://www.fa.gov.tw/upload/264/2015010713382370472.pdf(引用日期2015年2月)
財政部關務署。2010-2014。統計資料庫查詢系統。臺北,財政部關務署。取自https://portal.sw.nat.gov.tw/APGA/GA03(引用日期2015年2月)
臺灣鱸鰻協會。2011-2014。鱸鰻苗大盤買賣參考價格表。取自http://blog.yam.com/eel88/article/71512954(引用日期2014年9月)

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