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研究生:林大成
研究生(外文):Lin, Da-Cheng
論文名稱:南海北部過去四萬五千年來千年時間尺度之氣候動力研究
論文名稱(外文):Climate dynamics of the northern South China Sea on millennial scales for the past 45,000 years
指導教授:陳明德陳明德引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chen, Min-Te
口試委員:李德貴米泓生沈川洲李紅春
口試委員(外文):Lee, Teh-QueiMii, Horng-ShengShen, Chuan-ChouLi, Hong-Chun
口試日期:2015-07-20
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:應用地球科學研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:地球科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:155
中文關鍵詞:不飽和烯酮類指數海水表面溫度甘油二甲基甘油四醚酯指數溫度奇數碳長鍊正烷類南海千年時間尺度氣候變化亞洲季風冰期
外文關鍵詞:Uk’37-SSTsTEXH86-Tslong chain odd n-alkanesthe South China Seamillennial-scale climatic variationAsian monsoonglacial period
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格陵蘭冰心及北大西洋海洋岩心記錄能夠很清楚地看到千年時間尺度氣候變化型態,有精確定年的陸地石筍和黃土剖面記錄顯示出千年時間尺度亞洲季風變化和北半球高緯度地區快速氣候變化的連繫性。然而在格陵蘭及北大西洋以外的低緯度區域有關於千年時間尺度氣候改變的時間及變化的幅度仍不是很清楚,主要原因是缺乏有精確絕對定年的高品質氣候記錄。本研究建立國際海洋全球變遷計劃(International Marine Global Change Study: IMAGES)1997年第三航次於南海北部東沙群島附近所採MD972146和MD972148岩心過去四萬五千年以來高解析度碳十四定年年代模式,並重建岩心MD972146不飽和烯酮類指數海水表層溫度(海表溫)、甘油二甲基甘油四醚酯指數溫度及奇數碳長鍊正烷類千年時間尺度變化記錄。本研究比較MD972146、MD972148和SONNE 17940-2岩心氧同位素和碳酸鹽記錄及葫蘆洞石筍氧同位素記錄,顯示在18到30 ka時期,南海岩心MD972146氧同位素反映的海表鹽度變化和亞洲季風降雨變化幅度與時間點不一致。而在北大西洋變冷事件Heinrich II(H2)與III(H3)時期,南海岩心氧同位素反映的海表鹽度變化呈現降雨增加的氣候狀態,而在H1時期,南海岩心碳酸鹽反映的陸源物質輸入量變化呈現降雨增加的氣候狀態,亦顯示南海氣候近45萬年來反映亞洲季風變化的複雜性。本研究綜合比對有機地化指標反映的南海北部氣候和格陵蘭NGRIP冰心、中國古浪黃土剖面,顯示自最近一次冰盛期(Last Glacial Maximum, LGM; 約19到23 ka)到全新世,及在34到45 ka時期,南海北部氣候的千年時間尺度變化與北半球高緯氣候同步,然而南海北部在最近一次冰消期變暖的時間比在冰心和黃土剖面記錄的變暖時間早,可能是受南半球高緯氣候營力的影響。本研究亦顯示在21到34 ka時期,南海北部氣候反映出不同於北半球高緯氣候的13個變暖震盪,暗示了在此特定時期南海海表水文與亞洲季風係主要受到非北半球氣候營力的控制,可能與軌道傾角變化所導致的西太平洋緯度向熱輸送改變有關。
Millennial-scale climate changes are well-expressed from the Greenland ice core and North Atlantic marine records. The timing and the amplitude of the millennial-scale changes outside the Greenland and North Atlantic are poorly known, mainly due to lack of high quality climatic archives with precise constraint of absolute dating. Here, we construct high-resolution AMS 14C age model for cores of MD972146 and MD972148 retrieved from the northern South China Sea (SCS) and present a new, high-resolution AMS 14C dated Uk’37 sea surface temperatures (SSTs), TEXH86-derived temperatures (TEXH86-Ts) and long chain odd n-alkanes records of the last 45,000 years from a marine sediment core (MD972146). We compared the planktonic foraminifer δ18O and carbonate content records of core MD972146, MD97214 and SONNE 17940-2 with the Hulu cave δ18O records, it showed the discrepancy of variation of sea surface salinity (SSS) in the NSCS and Asian Monsoon (AM) precipitation for the interval of ~18-30 ka. The marine δ18O records which reflected variation of SSS showed that precipitation increased in the intervals corresponding to the high-latitude Northern Hemisphere (NH) Heinrich II and III event (H2 and H3). The Marine carbonate records that reflected variation of terrestrial material input showed that precipitation increased in the interval of H1. The results indicate the complexity for the marine cores in the SCS which were used in interpreting the AM variability for the last 45 ka. The organic geochemistry records of core MD972146 after compared with oxygen isotope record of Greenland NGRIP ice core, mean grain size record from loess sequence at Gulang, China showed millennial-scale oscillations during the intervals of since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 19~23 ka) to the Holocene and of ~34-45 ka that are nearly in-phase with those from the Northern Hemisphere (NH). However, the timing of late deglaciation warimg in the NSCS was earlier than that in NGRIR ice core and Gulang loess sequence which may be influenced by SH climatic forcing. The 13 warming oscillation patterns in the NSCS during ~21-34 ka do not match well with the NH patterns, implying that a dominance of “non-NH” mechanisms may have governed the hydrography changes in the NSCS and AM variation during this particular time interval. The mechanism may be related to change of obliquity that lead to variation of latitudinal heat transport in the western Pacific.
Contents

Acknowledgments……………………………………………………………I
Abstract (in Chinese)……………………………………………………………II
Abstract (in English)……………………………………………………………III
Contents………………………………………………………………………IV
Figure……………………………………………………………………………VI
Table……………………………………………………………………………VII

Chapter 1.Climate dynamics of the northern South China Sea on millennial scales for the past 45, 000 years (in Chinese)……………………………………………1

Chapter 2.Precisely dated AMS 14C marine cores reveal the complexity of millennial
-scale Asian monsoon variability in the northern South China Sea (MD972146, MD972148)……………………………………………………69

Chapter 3.Millennial-scale alkenone sea surface temperature changes in the northern South China Sea during the past 45,000 years (MD972146)………………………78

Chapter 4.Hydrographic variability in the northern South China Sea over the past 45,000 years: New insights based on temperature reconstructions by Uk’37 and TEXH86 proxies from a marine sediment core (MD972146)…………………………………88

Appendix.MD972146 Core ID, Sample depth, age and proxy data…………129

Figure

Chapter 1
圖1 南海現代(a,c)一月及(b,d)七月海水表層溫度及鹽度…………………………58

圖2 (a) MD972146、MD972148、SONNE 17940-2岩心及ODP Site 1145位置及(b) MD972146岩心位置一月、七月及年平均海水溫度隨深度變化…………59

圖3 37個碳的不飽和烯酮結構圖……………………………………………60

圖4異戊二烯型態(Isoprenoid)和支鍊型態(Branched)甘油二甲基甘油四醚酯結構圖 ……………………………………………………………………………61

圖5長錬正烷類結構圖…………………………………………………………………62

圖6 MD972146岩心長鍊正烷類氣相層析儀層析圖譜…………………………63

圖7 MD972146岩心不飽和烯酮氣相層析儀層析圖譜…………………………………64

圖8 MD972146岩心甘油二甲基甘油四醚酯液相層析儀層析圖譜…………………65

圖9 間冰段時期南海北部氣候示意圖……………………………………………………66

圖10 YD、H1、H4和冰段時期南海北部氣候示意圖…………………67

圖11 21到34 ka時期南海北部氣候示意圖…………………………68

Chapter 2
Figure 1 Core locations of MD972146, MD972148, and SONNE 17940-2 in the northern SCS……………………………………………………………70

Figure 2 MD972146 and MD972148 planktic foraminifer δ18O records plotted versus age by AMS 14C dating……………………………70

Figure 3 MD972146 δ18O record compare with Hulu cave δ18O record………………………………………………72

Figure 4 Total 210Pb activity for (a) MD972146 and (b) MD972148 plotted versus depth and (c) the activity of excess 210Pb measured for MD972148 plotted versus depth……72

Figure 5 A depth versus age (AMS 14C calibrated) plot for SONNE 17940-2,MD972146 and MD972148……………………………………73

Figure 6 Marine δ18O records plotted against 14C calibrated age for SONNE 17940-2, MD972146 and MD972148……………………………74

Figure 7 Marine CaCO3 content records plotted against 14C calibrated age for SONNE 17940-2, MD972146 and MD972148……74

Figure 8 Dongge-Hulu δ18O compared to marine δ18O records plotted against 14C calibrated age for SONNE 17940-2, MD972146 and MD972148………………………………75

Figure 9 Dongge-Hulu δ18O compared to marine CaCO3 records plotted against 14C calibrated age for SONNE 17940-2, MD972146 and MD972148………………………………76

Chapter 3
Figure 1 Core locations of MD972146, SONNE 17940-2 and ODP Site 1145 in the northern SCS, NGRIP ice core, Gulang losses sequence and MD012444 on the Iberian Margin……………80

Figure 2 (a) A depth versus age (AMS 14C calibrated) plot for MD972146 and (b) MD972146 alkenone- SST records plotted against 14C calibrated age……………………………………82

Figure 3 Alkenone-SSTs record of MD972146 plotted against 14C calibrated age compared with the δ18O records of NGRIP ice core, mean grain size of losses sequence at Gulang and alkenone-SSTs record of MD012444………………………………83

Figure 4 Alkenone-SSTs record of MD972146 plotted against 14C calibrated age compared with ODP Site 1145 Mg/Ca-based SSTs record and SONNE 17940-2 MAT estimated SST………………85

Chapter 4
Figure 1 (a) Core locations of MD972146 in the northern South China Sea and Gulang losses sequence and (b) depth and seasonal variation of water temperatures at the study site…………………………………123

Figure 2 Uk’37-SSTs, TEXH86-SSTs, TEXH86-derived temperatures at 30-125m, and BIT records of MD972146 plotted against 14C calibrated age for the past 45ka…………124

Figure 3 Concentration of long chain odd C25-33 n-alkanes and the ACL and CPI of long chain odd C25-33 n-alkanes records of MD972146 plotted against 14C calibrated age for the past 45ka………………………………125

Figure 4 Uk’37-SSTs, TEXH86-SSTs, TEXH86-derived temperatures at 30-125m, ∆SST Uk’37-TEXH86, ∆T TEXH86 SST-T(30-125m) and ∆T alkenone– GDGTs records of MD972146 plotted against 14C calibrated age……………………………………126

Figure 5 Uk’37-SSTs, TEXH86-SSTs, TEXH86-derived temperatures at 30-125m, ∆SST Uk’37-TEXH86, ∆T TEXH86 SST-T(30-125m) records of MD972146 plotted against 14C calibrated age compared with the δ18O records of NGRIP ice core and mean grain size of losses sequence at Gulang between 10 and 45 ka………………………………………………………127

Figure 6 ∆SST Uk’37-TEXH86, ∆T TEXH86 SST-T(30-125m), ∆T alkenone– GDGTs and concentration of long chain odd C25-33 n-alkanes records of MD972146 plotted against 14C calibrated age compared with the δ18O records of NGRIP ice core and mean grain size of losses sequence at Gulang between 10 and 45 ka…………………………………………………………………128

Table

Chapter 2
Table 1 MD972146 age model……………………………………71

Table 2 MD972148 age model…………………………………………71

Table 3 Total 210Pb activity of cores MD972146 and total activity and excess 210Pb of core MD972148………………………………73

Table 4 17940-2, MD972146 MD972148 Mean Sedimentation Rate………………………………………………………………………………73

Chapter 3
Table 1 MD972146 age model………………………………………………81

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