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研究生:李英旭
研究生(外文):Lee, Ying-Hsu
論文名稱:以葡萄糖酸內酯為凝固劑及含有功能性成分之豆花質感特性探討
論文名稱(外文):Textural properties of tou-hua coagulated with glucono-delta-lactone and functional ingredients
指導教授:張克亮
指導教授(外文):Chang, Ke Liang
口試委員:陳輝煌宋文杰蕭心怡
口試委員(外文):Chen, hui huangSung, Wen-ChiehHsiao, Hsin-I
口試日期:2016-06-17
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:44
中文關鍵詞:豆花葡萄糖酸內酯
外文關鍵詞:tou-huaglucono-delta-lactoneGDL
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本研究目的為使用葡萄糖酸內酯 (Glucono-delta-lactone, GDL) 做為凝固劑,並以薑黃 (Curcumin)、兒茶素 (Epigallocatechin-3-gallate, EGCG)、與花青素 (Anthocyanin) 做為功能性添加物,探討豆花質感特性。使用市售之黃豆經浸泡、磨豆、脫渣與過濾、煮沸後所得豆漿製成之豆花進行一般成份分析探討,結果顯示,豆花之水份含量最高,蛋白質次之,接著為脂質、纖維素、與灰份,其含量分別為 66.7%、3.8%、1.7%、0.47% 與 0.38%。浸泡時間對黃豆吸水率之試驗中,隨著浸泡時間越久黃豆吸水率越高,於浸泡前 6 h 吸水速率最快,吸水率由 0% 上升至 81%,於第 20 h 後黃豆吸水率達飽和,吸水率達 117%,因此以浸泡 20 h 做為實驗之後續基礎。接著為添加不同濃度之 GDL 對豆花 pH 值試驗,結果顯示添加 0.2 N 至 0.5 N 之 GDL 使豆漿 pH 值由 6.62 下降至 5.26,此外,0.3 N 之 GDL 添加量之豆花,酸味較低,pH 值為 5.7。於不同濃度 GDL 與 GDL+Starch 之添加對豆花離水率 (Water loss) 的影響,添加 0.2 N – 0.5 N 之 GDL 對豆花離水率無明顯差異,然而添加 0.4 N GDL+Starch 具最佳之離水率為 10.1%,其次為添加 0.3 N,離水率為 10.1%。以添加不同濃度葡萄酸內酯 (Glucono-delta-lactone, GDL) 測量 pH 值之變化,結果顯示 GDL 由 pH 2.65 下降至 pH 2.03,且可得知添加 GDL 之濃度越高 (0.1 N – 0.5 N),pH 值越低。物性儀分析顯示隨著 GDL 濃度上升,硬度 (Hardness) 及膠黏性 (Gumminess)有上升的趨勢,分別由 123.33 g 及 37.33 g 上升至 294.3 g及154.67 g ; 黏性 (Adhesiveness) 則與 GDL 濃度間沒有相關。在 GDL+Starch 組別的物性分析也有相同的結果。色差儀分析加入綠茶、葡萄汁及薑黃的豆花色澤,可以發現綠茶及葡萄汁添加的組別 L* 值與控制組差異不大, b* 則是控制組較偏黃色,在白度 (W.I) 方面,三組間差異不大。唯薑黃添加組別, L* 及白度明顯較低於其他三組,其 b* 明顯大於其他三組,呈現明顯黃色。抗氧化能力方面, DPPH 自由基清除能力以添加綠茶組 67 % 最高,葡萄汁 61% 次之;還原能力則以葡萄汁組 0.37 Trolox mg/ml 最高,綠茶組 0.31 Trolox mg/ml 次之。經掃描式電子顯微鏡觀察豆花之結構,各組皆能觀察到網狀結構,並以 0.2 N GDL 添加組別有最好的網狀結構產生。最後經由官能品評結果得知,控制組的各項得分為最高,功能性添加物組別分數較低,可能需要改變製備方式,來提高其官能品評之分數。
In this study, Glucono-delta-lactone (GDL) as the coagulant of tou-hua. Green tea, grape juice and turmeric powder were used as functional additives to examine their effect on the textural properties of tou-hua. The soybean milk was made from soybean, after soaking, grinding, filtration and boiling was used to make tou-hua. The proximate component analysis of tou-hua showed that the major component was moisture, followed by protein, fat, fiber, and ash. The content was 66.7%, 3.8%, 1.7%, 0.47% and 0.38% respectively. The water absorption percentage increased with the soaking time. In the first 6 hours the absorption rate increased from 0% to 81%. And saturated after 20 of soaking, when the absorption rate was 117%. Tou-hua added with different concentrations of GDL showed different pH values. The pH value decreased from 6.62 to 5.26 with increasing GDL concentrations. Different concentrations of GDL also affected the water loss of tou-hua, whereas the concentrations of GDL from 0.2 N to 0.5 N showed no significantly difference. Further more the 0.4 N GDL+Starch showed the lowest water loss of 10.1%. The textural properties was analyzed by physical analyzer. The results showed that with the increasing the concentration of GDL, hardness and gumminess increased from 123.33 g to 294.33 g and 37.33 g to 154.67 g respectively. Adhesiveness had no connection to the concentration of GDL. The group of GDL+starch showed similar result. After we added green tea, grape juice and turmeric powder into tou-hua, the color of tou-hua showed no significantly difference between the groups of control, green tea and grape juice. The green tea group showed the highest DPPH scavenging rate of 67% ; while the grape juice group showed the highest reducing ability of 0.37 trolox mg/ml. The tou-hua structure was observed by scanning electron microscope. All groups of tou-hua had network structure formation, but the 0.2N GDL+starch showed the best structure. The sensory properties of tou-hua in term of appearance, odor, taste, texture and overall acceptability achieved the highest score was the control group.
一、研究背景與目的 1
二、文獻回顧 2
2.1.大豆 2
2.1.1.大豆簡介 2
2.1.2.大豆組成 2
2.1.2.1.蛋白質 2
2.1.2.2.脂質 2
2.1.2.3.碳水化合物 3
2.1.2.4.機能性成分 3
2.1.3. 大豆凝膠製品加工之理化性質 3
2.1.4.影響大豆凝膠因素 4
2.1.4.1.大豆儲存歷程 4
2.1.4.2. 凝固溫度 4
2.1.4.3.凝固劑種類 4
2.2.兒茶素來源與種類 4
2.2.1.兒茶素的生理功能 5
2.2.2.兒茶素的穩定性 5
2.3.薑黃素 7
2.3.1.薑黃組成份 7
2.3.2.薑黃素之功用 7
2.4.花青素 8
2.4.1.花青素結構 9
2.4.2.花青素特性 9
2.4.3.花青素生理活性 9
2.5.葡萄糖酸 9
2.5.1.葡萄糖酸來源 10
2.5.2.特性簡介 10
2.5.3.葡萄糖酸的應用 11
三、實驗材料 11
3.1.實驗原料 11
3.2.實驗藥品 11
3.3.實驗儀器設備 12
4.1.豆花製備 16
4.2.一般成份分析 16
4.2.1.水份 16
4.2.2.粗灰份 16
4.2.3.粗蛋白 17
4.2.4.粗脂肪 17
4.2.5.碳水化合物 17
4.3.豆花 pH 值 17
4.4.色澤分析 17
4.5.豆花之離水率 18
4.6.豆花物性分析 18
4.7.抗氧化能力試驗 19
4.7.1. DPPH自由基清除活性(DPPH radical scavenging activity) 19
4.7.2. 還原能力測定 19
4.8.官能品評 20
4.9.統計分析 20
五、結果與討論 21
5.1.黃豆浸泡曲線 21
5.2.不同濃度 GDL 之pH 值 21
5.3.不同濃度 GDL 及 GDL+Starch 添加之豆花外觀及剖面觀察 21
5.4.豆花之一般成分分析 22
5.5.不同濃度 GDL 添加豆花之 pH 值 22
5.6.不同濃度 GDL 及 GDL+Starch 添加豆花離水率 22
5.7.不同濃度 GDL 及 GDL+Starch 添加豆花之質地分析 22
5.8.不同濃度 GDL 及 GDL+Starch 添加豆花之色澤分析 23
5.9.添加不同含有功能性添加物之豆花抗氧化能力 23
5.9.1. 不同添加物之豆花DPPH自由基清除活性(DPPH radical scavenging activity) 23
5.9.2. 不同添加物之豆花還原能力 24
5.10.不同濃度葡萄糖酸內酯及番薯粉豆花之掃描式電子顯微鏡圖 24
5.11.含有機能性添加物豆花之官能品評 25
六、 結論 26
七、參考文獻 27
八、 圖表 31


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