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研究生(外文):Lin, Terq-Der
論文名稱(外文):A study of cargo safety operation of cape size bulk carrier
指導教授(外文):Tien, Wen-Kwo
口試委員(外文):Chang, Ki-YinChung, Yu-Ko
外文關鍵詞:bulk carrierscargo operationshear force and bending moment
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散裝貨船大型化已成為目前海運運輸的趨勢,因此本研究針對海岬型散裝船以一個計程傭船航次實例,裝載貨物以船上No.158 LOCAL[2]裝載計算機為主,並採用Excel應用軟體及裝載手冊驗算貨重作比較,對於貨物配艙變動需求下規劃進行研究分析,得到海岬型貨輪在貨物分配各貨艙裝載貨物計算以A、B、C、D、四種不同貨載狀況下得到重點結論:
(3)C狀況貨物部份貨艙分配貨艙裝載貨物於第1、3、4、5、6、7、9貨艙,最大剪力90.9%,彎曲力矩54%,自由液面修正橫向定傾高8.28m允許範圍內,於第1、4、6貨艙載重量較接近允許載貨重量,鋼板受力較大,對於老舊船較危險。(4)D狀況貨物部份貨艙分配貨艙裝載貨物於第1、3、4、6、7、9貨艙,最大剪力109.08%,彎曲力矩104.48%,都超過剪力、彎曲力矩100%,船將在此處折斷,自由液面修正橫向定傾高7.72m允許範圍內,第1貨艙載重有超過允許載貨重量及第5貨艙沒裝貨,未達到規定至少要裝載6,263-36,097 MT的安全範圍,鋼板受力大,此處將損壞斷裂。

Transportation is the cradle of human civilization. Vessels are an important means of sea transport, and freight contracts are the main operating businesses for shipping companies. In early times, the tonnage of vessel was small; nowadays, thanks to the advance of technology, tonnage is getting greater and greater, with four hundred thousands of tonnage for bulk carriers. The building of loading decks and ports is getting larger in size and commodity loading faster in speed. The requirements for security examination of loading metacentric height, shearing force and bending moment on cargo transportation are hence very strict.
This study focused on the operation of loading of bulk carriers, how to complete the transport task successfully and the protection of marine environments to prevent marine pollution and ensure the safety of the vessels, cargo and human life.
The enlargement of bulk carriers has become the current trend in sea freight transportation. For this reason, this study investigated and analyzed the need of cargo stowage variations by calculating the cargo load based on the data from onboard local loading calculator No. 158 on a cape size bulk carrier in one trip charter voyage and checking cargo weights using Excel program and the loading manual for comparison. From the calculations of cargo load distributed to each hold in the carrier in four different cargo loading scenarios A,B,C and D, the following key conclusions were made.
Same cargo calculations by position (in scenarios A, B, C, and D):
(1) Draft 17.02 even keel; (2) Sea condition: Ocean; (3) Displacement 184,381T; (4) Measured specific gravity of sea water 1.025; (5) Propeller immersion ratio 151.7%.
Different cargo calculations by position:
(1) In scenario A, homogeneous hold loading condition, the cargo was distributed in 9 holds, resulting in -35.01% and -28.04% each of the maximum values for shear force and bending moment, and the transverse metacentric height corrected for free surface effect at 9.37m and The cargo loaded in 9 holds was within the permissible GoM and weight limit.
(2) In scenario B, alternate hold loading condition, the cargo was distributed in holds 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 resulting in -97.34% and 72.92% each of the maximum values for shear force and bending moment and the transverse metacentric height corrected for free surface effect at 6.90m. The cargo loads in holds 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 were closer to the permissible weight limit and caused more stress on the steel plates, posing a higher risk to old ships.
(3) In scenario C, block hold loading condition,the cargo was distributed in holds 1, 3,
4, 5, 6, 7 and 9 resulting in 90.9% and 54% each of the maximum values for shear force and bending moment, and the transverse metacentric height corrected for free surface effect within the permissible limit, 8.28m. The cargo loads in holds 1, 4, and 6 were closer to the permissible weight limit and caused more stress on the steel plates, posing a higher risk to old ships.
(4) In scenario D, block hold loading condition, the cargo was distributed in holds 1, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 9, resulting in 109.08% and 104.48% each of the maximum values for shear force and bending moment, which exceeded 100% of the maximum values for both and would cause the ship to be damaged and break in this spot, while the transverse metacentric height corrected for free surface effect was within the permissible limit, at 7.72m. The load in hold 1 exceeded the permissible weight limit, whereas the cargo weight in hold 5, which was not loaded with cargo, did not meet the safety minimum requirement of 6,263 - 36,097 MT. This means more stress on the steel plates and the subsequent occurrence of damage and breakage in this spot.
This study verified computer features of cargo loading. By swiftly providing accurate safety data for cargo loading, one can reduce unnecessary waste of time on complicated manual calculations. Time saved is money earned. It is crucial for cargo safety check and requirement and the development and training of personnel in the future.
摘要 I
Abstract II
圖目錄 V
表目錄 VIII
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機與目的 2
第二節 研究範圍與限制 2
第三節 研究問題的性質重要性及價值 6
第二章 文獻回顧 8
第一節 船舶安全穩度學理上彙整 8
第二節 船舶剪力學理上彙整 16
第三節 船舶彎曲力矩學理上彙整 21
第四節 船舶剪力與彎曲力矩計算彙整 25
第三章 研究方法 35
第一節 研究架構 35
第二節 研究方法 35
第三節 散裝船貨載安全作業 36
第四節 貨載計算機SNO.158 LOADCAL 71
第四章 實證分析比較 88
第一節 傳統用Loading Manual 計算方法 88
第二節 貨載計算機貨物重量計算方法 97
第三節 貨載計算機貨物配艙方法 102
第五章 結論與建議 121
第一節 貨物配艙變動需求規劃安全研究分析 121
第二節 對於貨物裝載操作安全的展望 125
參考文獻 127
附錄一 132
附錄二 133
附錄三 140

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