跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.237.6.124) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/07/24 04:39
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:陳曉萱
研究生(外文):Hsiao-Hsuan Chen
論文名稱:嬰兒導向式歌唱的聲學特徵與詞彙學習效果
論文名稱(外文):The Acoustic Features and Word Learning Effect of Infant-Directed Singing
指導教授:曹峰銘曹峰銘引用關係
指導教授(外文):Feng-Ming Tsao
口試委員:劉惠美胡中凡
口試委員(外文):Huei-Mei LiuJon-Fan Hu
口試日期:2015-07-09
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:心理學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:108
中文關鍵詞:嬰兒導向式歌唱兒歌聲學分析詞彙學習語言發展
外文關鍵詞:infant-directed singingchildren songacoustic analysisword learninglanguage development
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:107
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
環境中的語音特徵明顯影響嬰兒的語言發展,而這些語音特徵經常由照顧者對嬰兒使用的「嬰兒導向式語言(簡稱為媽媽語)」和「嬰兒導向式歌唱(簡稱為兒歌)」,傳遞給嬰兒。研究發現媽媽語的聲學特徵為音高較高、音長較長、音高範圍較大和母音構音空間較大(Kuhl, Andruski, Chistovich, Chistovich, Kozhevnikova et al., 1997; Liu, Kuhl, & Tsao, 2003),而華語的研究也顯示媽媽語仍然保留聲調聲學特徵(Liu, Tsao, & Kuhl, 2007)。另外,研究也顯示媽媽語對於語言學習可能有所助益(Ma, Golinkoff, Houston, & Hirsh-Pasek, 2011; Singh, Nestor, Parikh, & Yull, 2009; Thiessen, Hill, & Saffran, 2005)。然而相較於被廣泛研究的媽媽語,目前仍缺乏兒歌相關的研究,而且由於華語為聲調語言,音樂旋律的音高可能會影響語音的聲調,影響聲調知覺,因此需要檢驗華語的嬰兒導向式歌唱對於語言學習的影響。本研究檢驗兒歌的聲學特徵和詞彙學習效果,以評估其對於語言學習可能的影響。實驗一利用聲學分析工具,檢驗兒歌的聲學特徵。以11 (n=9)和24(n=9)個月的嬰兒與其母親為參與者,請媽媽錄製「媽媽語」、「兒歌」及「成人導向式語言」。結果顯示在兒歌的情況下,音高較高、音長較長,此特徵和媽媽語類似;然而,兒歌的音高範圍和母音構音空間則沒有擴大的現象,聲調的聲學特徵和口語情境不同。實驗二則藉由偏好注視典範,檢驗兒歌的詞彙學習效果,以14(n=30)、18(n=32)、24(n=33)個月的嬰兒為受試者,分配到口語或兒歌的新詞學習情境。結果顯示,口語組的18和24個月大嬰兒能學習新詞,然而兒歌組在三個月齡皆無法學習新詞。綜合兩個實驗的結果,從聲學特徵來看,兒歌的音高較高有可能吸引嬰兒的注意力;而語音呈現速度較慢,對於詞彙學習也可能有幫助,然而兒歌的聲調聲學特徵較說話情境不明顯,卻不利於嬰兒知覺詞彙中的聲調。而實驗二也顯示在兒歌的情境下,學習詞彙的效果不如口語的新詞學習情境。因此對兩歲以前的嬰兒唱兒歌,在詞彙學習的助益並不顯著。

The speech inputs from the ambient language are influential to infants’ language development. Infant-directed speech (IDSpeech) and infant-directed singing (IDSing) are common in care-giving behaviors. Compared to adult-directed speech (ADSpeech), IDSpeech has higher pitch, longer duration, larger pitch range, and exaggerated vowel space. Besides, Mandarin IDSpeech still preserved lexical tone features while having exaggerated prosody. IDSpeech might be helpful to language learning. There are affluent studies on IDSpeech, but, relatively few studies investigated influences of IDSing on language learning. In addition, Mandarin Chinese as a tonal language, pitch height and contour manifest lexical tones of syllables. The pitch features of lexical tones in IDSing may be modified by musical pitch, diminishing tonal differences and reducing perceptual differences between words. Therefore, it raises the issue whether IDSing facilitates word development in tonal-language learning infants. In this study, the roles of IDSing on language development were assessed with acoustic analysis and word-learning task. Experiment 1 investigated the acoustic features of IDSing. Eleven (n = 9) and twenty-four (n = 9) month-old infant-mother dyads were recruited. There were three recording conditions: ADSpeech, IDSpeech, and IDSing. Results indicated that IDSing has higher pitch and longer duration, which are similar to IDSpeech. Nonetheless, the pitch range and vowel space are not expanded in IDSing, compared with IDSpeech. The features of lexical tones are different from speech conditions, suggesting that the lexical tones are not completely preserved in singing condition. Experiment 2 examined the word learning effect of IDSing by using the eye-tracker in a preferential looking paradigm. Fourteen (n=30), eighteen (n=32) and twenty-four (n=33) month-old infants were randomly assigned to either speech or singing word learning condition. The results showed that 18 and 24 month-old infants learned novel words in speech condition but all three age groups failed to learn a novel word in singing condition. The results of Experiment 1 suggested mixed effects of IDSing on word learning. The higher pitch would attract infants’ attention and slower speaking rate might be helpful to phonetic processing. However, the acoustic features of lexical tones are distorted in IDSing, which is unfavorable to lexical tone perception. Experiment 2 revealed that IDSpeech might be better than IDSing to facilitate word learning. In conclusion, results of both experiments implicated that IDSing seems not to have any great effects on word learning to infants younger than two years of age.

第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機 1
第二節 文獻回顧 5
第二章 實驗一 21
第一節 方法 22
第二節 結果 27
第三節 討論 40
第三章 實驗二 47
第一節 方法 48
第二節 結果 57
第三節 討論 70
第四章 綜合討論 77
第五章 參考文獻 81
第六章 附錄 93
附錄一:實驗一目標詞彙與歌曲 93
附錄二:實驗一家長同意書與背景資料表 94
附錄三:實驗一聲學特徵之平均數與標準差 98
附錄四:實驗二家長同意書與背景資料表 101
附錄五:受試者語言與家庭背景資料 106
附錄六:實驗二歌曲 107
附錄七:實驗二新詞學習結果總表 108


中文文獻
李時銘 (2004)。詩歌與音樂論稿。台北市:里仁書局。
劉惠美、陳昱君 (出版中)。華語嬰幼兒表達性詞彙的語意內容及詞類組成之發展。教育心理學報。
鄭靜宜 (2011)。語音聲學--說話聲音的科學。台北市:心理出版社股份有限公司。
薛范 (2002)。歌曲翻译探索与实践。武漢:湖北教育出版社。

英文文獻
Albert, M. L., Sparks, R. W., & Helm, N. A. (1973). Melodic intonation therapy for aphasia. Archives of Neurology, 29(2), 130-131.
Bergeson, T. R., & Trehub, S. E. (1999). Mothers'' singing to infants and preschool children. Infant Behavior and Development, 22(1), 51-64.
Boersma, P., & Weenink, D. (2012). Praat: doing phonetics by computer [Computer program]. (Version 5.3.04 ). http://www.praat.org/.
Broesch, T. L., & Bryant, G. A. (2015). Prosody in infant-directed speech is similar across Western and traditional cultures. Journal of Cognition and Development, 16(1), 31-43. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15248372.2013.833923
Brown, S., Martinez, M. J., Hodges, D. A., Fox, P. T., & Parsons, L. M. (2004). The song system of the human brain. Cognitive brain research, 20(3), 363-375.
Brown, S., Martinez, M. J., & Parsons, L. M. (2006). Music and language side by side in the brain: a PET study of the generation of melodies and sentences. European journal of neuroscience, 23(10), 2791-2803.
Calvert, S. L. (2001). Impact of televised songs on children''s and young adults'' memory of educational content. Media Psychology, 3(4), 325-342.
Calvert, S. L. (2013). Children''s media: The role of music and audio features. The psychology of music in multimedia, 267.
Calvert, S. L., & Billingsley, R. L. (1998). Young children''s recitation and comprehension of information presented by songs. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 19(1), 97-108.
Colwell, C. M. (1994). Therapeutic applications of music in the whole language kindergarten. Journal of music therapy, 31(4), 238-247.
Cooley, J. (2012). The use of developmental speech and language training through music to enhance quick incidental learning in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Colorado State University.
Cooper, R. P., & Aslin, R. N. (1989). The language environment of the young infant: Implications for early perceptual development. Canadian Journal of Psychology/Revue canadienne de psychologie, 43(2), 247-265. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0084216
Corbeil, M., Trehub, S. E., & Peretz, I. (2013). Speech vs. singing: infants choose happier sounds. Frontiers in psychology, 4.
Costa-Giomi, E., & Ilari, B. (2014). Infants'' preferential attention to sung and spoken stimuli. Journal of Research in Music Education, 62(2), 188-194. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022429414530564
Cristia, A., & Seidl, A. (2013). The hyperarticulation hypothesis of infant-directed speech. Journal of child language, 1-22.
Delavenne, A., Gratier, M., & Devouche, E. (2013). Expressive timing in infant-directed singing between 3 and 6 months. Infant Behavior and Development, 36(1), 1-13.
Englund, K. T. (2005). Voice onset time in infant directed speech over the first six months. First Language, 25(2), 219-234.
Englund, K. T., & Behne, D. M. (2005). Infant directed speech in natural interaction—Norwegian vowel quantity and quality. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 34(3), 259-280.
Estes, K. G., & Hurley, K. (2013). Infant-directed prosody helps infants map sounds to meanings. Infancy, 18(5), 797-824. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/infa.12006
Falk, S. (2007). Speech Clarity in Infant-directed Singing: an Analysis of German Vowels. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the XVI. ICPhS Conference, Saarbrücken, 6.-10. August 2007.
Fernald, A. (1985). Four-month-old infants prefer to listen to motherese. Infant Behavior and Development, 8(2), 181-195.
Fernald, A., & Simon, T. (1984). Expanded intonation contours in mothers'' speech to newborns. Developmental Psychology, 20(1), 104.
Fernald, A., Taeschner, T., Dunn, J., Papousek, M., de Boysson-Bardies, B., & Fukui, I. (1989). A cross-language study of prosodic modifications in mothers'' and fathers'' speech to preverbal infants. Journal of child language, 16(03), 477-501.
Gleason, J. B., & Ratner, N. B. (2005). The development of language.
Gliga, T., Elsabbagh, M., Hudry, K., Charman, T., & Johnson, M. H. (2012). Gaze following, gaze reading, and word learning in children at risk for autism. Child Development, 83(3), 926-938.
Golinkoff, R. M., Ma, W., Song, L., & Hirsh-Pasek, K. (2013). Twenty-Five Years Using the Intermodal Preferential Looking Paradigm to Study Language Acquisition What Have We Learned? Perspectives on Psychological Science, 8(3), 316-339.
Gurteen, P. M., Horne, P. J., & Erjavec, M. (2011). Rapid word learning in 13- and 17-month-olds in a naturalistic two-word procedure: Looking versus reaching measures. Journal of experimental child psychology, 109(2), 201-217. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2010.12.001
Hernandez-Reif, M., & Granger, J. (2015). Infant Word-Object Learning Through Song versus Speech. Paper presented at the Society for Research in Child Development Biennial Meeting, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
Hoskins, C. (1988). Use of music to increase verbal response and improve expressive language abilities of preschool language delayed children. Journal of music therapy, 25(2), 73-84.
Jongman, A., Wang, Y., Moore, C. B., & Sereno, J. A. (2006). Perception and production of Mandarin Chinese tones: na.
Joyce, M. F. (2011). Vocabulary acquisition with kindergarten children using song picture books. (Doctor of Education in Educational Leadership), Northeastern University.
Kouri, T., & Telander, K. (2008). Children''s reading comprehension and narrative recall in sung and spoken story contexts. Child Language Teaching and Therapy, 24(3), 329-349. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0265659008096296
Kouri, T. A., & Winn, J. (2006). Lexical learning in sung and spoken story script contexts. Child Language Teaching and Therapy, 22(3), 293-313.
Kuhl, P. K., Andruski, J. E., Chistovich, I. A., Chistovich, L. A., Kozhevnikova, E. V., Ryskina, V. L., . . . Lacerda, F. (1997). Cross-language analysis of phonetic units in language addressed to infants. Science, 277(5326), 684-686.
Kuhl, P. K., Williams, K. A., Lacerda, F., Stevens, K. N., & Lindblom, B. (1992). Linguistic experience alters phonetic perception in infants by 6 months of age. Science, 255(5044), 606-608.
Lebedeva, G. C., & Kuhl, P. K. (2010). Sing that tune: Infants'' perception of melody and lyrics and the facilitation of phonetic recognition in songs. Infant Behavior and Development, 33(4), 419–430.
Lim, H. A. (2010). Effect of “developmental speech and language training through music” on speech production in children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of music therapy, 47(1), 2-26.
Liu, H.-M., Kuhl, P. K., & Tsao, F.-M. (2003). An association between mothers’ speech clarity and infants’ speech discrimination skills. Developmental Science, 6(3), F1-F10.
Liu, H.-M., Tsao, F.-M., & Kuhl, P. K. (2007). Acoustic analysis of lexical tone in Mandarin infant-directed speech. Developmental Psychology, 43(4), 912.
Liu, H.-M., Tsao, F.-M., & Kuhl, P. K. (2009). Age-related changes in acoustic modifications of Mandarin maternal speech to preverbal infants and five-year-old children: A longitudinal study. Journal of child language, 36(4), 909-922. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S030500090800929X
Ma, W., Golinkoff, R. M., Houston, D. M., & Hirsh-Pasek, K. (2011). Word learning in infant-and adult-directed speech. Language Learning and Development, 7(3), 185-201.
Malsheen, B. J. (1980). Two hypotheses for phonetic clarification in the speech of mothers to children. In G. H. Yeni-Komshian, J. F. Kavanagh, & C. A. Ferguson (Eds.), Child phonology (Vol. 2, pp. 173–184). San Diego: Academic Press.
Martin, A., Schatz, T., Versteegh, M., Miyazawa, K., Mazuka, R., Dupoux, E., & Cristia, A. (2015). Mothers speak less clearly to infants than to adults: A comprehensive test of the hyperarticulation hypothesis. Psychological science, 26(3), 341-347. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797614562453
Maye, J., Werker, J. F., & Gerken, L. (2002). Infant sensitivity to distributional information can affect phonetic discrimination. Cognition, 82(3), B101-B111. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0010-0277(01)00157-3
McMurray, B., Kovack-Lesh, K. A., Goodwin, D., & McEchron, W. (2013). Infant directed speech and the development of speech perception: Enhancing development or an unintended consequence? Cognition, 129(2), 362-378. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2013.07.015
Moyeda, X., Gómez, I. C., & Flores, T. (2006). Implementing a musical program to promote preschool children’s vocabulary development. Early Childhood Research & Practice, 8(1).
Nakata, T., & Trehub, S. E. (2004). Infants'' responsiveness to maternal speech and singing. Infant Behav Dev, 27(4), 455-464. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.infbeh.2004.03.002
Oakes, L. M. (2012). Advances in eye tracking in infancy research. Infancy, 17(1), 1-8.
Parish-Morris, J., Golinkoff, R. M., & Hirsh-Pasek, K. (2013). From coo to code: A brief story of language development The Oxford handbook of developmental psychology (Vol 1): Body and mind (pp. 867-908). New York, NY: Oxford University Press; US.
Patel, A. D., Peretz, I., Tramo, M., & Labreque, R. (1998). Processing prosodic and musical patterns: a neuropsychological investigation. Brain and language, 61(1), 123-144.
Piotroski, J., & Naigles, L. R. (2012). Intermodal Preferential Looking. Research Methods in Child Language: A Practical Guide, 17-28.
Rainey, D. W., & Larsen, J. D. (2002). The effect of familiar melodies on initial learning and long-term memory for unconnected text. Music Perception, 20(2), 173-186.
Rattanasone, N. X., Burnham, D., & Reilly, R. G. (2013). Tone and vowel enhancement in Cantonese infant-directed speech at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of age. Journal of Phonetics, 41(5), 332-343. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wocn.2013.06.001
Rock, A. M., Trainor, L. J., & Addison, T. L. (1999). Distinctive messages in infant-directed lullabies and play songs. Developmental Psychology, 35(2), 527.
Rosenau, S. (1999). An analysis of phonetic differences between German singing and speaking voices. Paper presented at the 14th ICPh, San Francisco.
Samuelson, L. K., & Smith, L. B. (1998). Memory and attention make smart word learning: An alternative account of Akhtar, Carpenter, and Tomasello. Child Development, 69(1), 94-104.
Schön, D., Boyer, M., Moreno, S., Besson, M., Peretz, I., & Kolinsky, R. (2008). Songs as an aid for language acquisition. Cognition, 106(2), 975-983.
Schafer, G., & Plunkett, K. (1998). Rapid word learning by fifteen-month-olds under tightly controlled conditions. Child Development, 69(2), 309-320. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1132166
Schneider, W., Eschman, A., & Zuccoloto, A. (2007). E-prime 2.0. Psychological Software Inc.
Serafine, M. L., Crowder, R. G., & Repp, B. H. (1984). Integration of melody and text in memory for songs. Cognition, 16(3), 285-303.
Shen, X. S., & Lin, M. (1991). A perceptual study of Mandarin tones 2 and 3. Language and Speech, 34(2), 145-156.
Shenfield, T., Trehub, S. E., & Nakata, T. (2003). Maternal singing modulates infant arousal. Psychology of Music, 31(4), 365-375. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03057356030314002
Shic, F., Scassellati, B., & Chawarska, K. (2008). The incomplete fixation measure. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 2008 symposium on Eye tracking research & applications.
Singh, L., Nestor, S., Parikh, C., & Yull, A. (2009). Influences of infant-directed speech on early word recognition. Infancy, 14(6), 654-666.
Smith, L. B. (2000). Avoiding associations when it’s behaviorism you really hate. Breaking the word learning barrier, 169-174.
Snow, C. E. (1972). Mothers'' speech to children learning language. Child Development, Vol. 43, No. 2., 549-565.
Snow, C. E. (1977). Mothers'' speech research: From input to interaction. Talking to children: Language input and acquisition, 31-49.
Soderstrom, M. (2007). Beyond babytalk: Re-evaluating the nature and content of speech input to preverbal infants. Developmental Review, 27(4), 501-532. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dr.2007.06.002
Song, J. Y., Demuth, K., & Morgan, J. (2010). Effects of the acoustic properties of infant-directed speech on infant word recognition. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 128(1), 389-400.
Stern, D. N., Spieker, S., Barnett, R., & MacKain, K. (1983). The prosody of maternal speech: Infant age and context related changes. Journal of child language, 10(01), 1-15.
Stern, D. N., Spieker, S., & MacKain, K. (1982). Intonation contours as signals in maternal speech to prelinguistic infants. Developmental Psychology, 18(5), 727.
Synnestvedt, A., Ratner, N. B., & Newman, R. (2010). Voice onset time in infant‐directed speech at 7.5 and 11 months. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 127(3), 1853-1853.
Tan, S. H., & Schafer, G. (2005). Toddlers'' novel word learning: Effects of phonological representation, vocabulary size and parents'' ostensive behaviour. First Language, 25(2), 131-155. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0142723705050338
Thiessen, E. D., Hill, E. A., & Saffran, J. R. (2005). Infant‐directed speech facilitates word segmentation. Infancy, 7(1), 53-71.
Thiessen, E. D., & Saffran, J. R. (2009). How the melody facilitates the message and vice versa in infant learning and memory. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1169(1), 225-233.
Trainor, L. J. (1996). Infant preferences for infant-directed versus noninfant-directed playsongs and lullabies. Infant Behav Dev, 19(1), 83-92. doi: Doi 10.1016/S0163-6383(96)90046-6
Trainor, L. J., & Adams, B. (2000). Infants’ and adults’ use of duration and intensity cues in the segmentation of tone patterns. Perception & psychophysics, 62(2), 333-340.
Trainor, L. J., Clark, E. D., Huntley, A., & Adams, B. A. (1997). The acoustic basis of preferences for infant-directed singing. Infant Behavior and Development, 20(3), 383-396.
Trainor, L. J., & Desjardins, R. N. (2002). Pitch characteristics of infant-directed speech affect infants’ ability to discriminate vowels. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9(2), 335-340.
Trainor, L. J., & Zacharias, C. A. (1998). Infants prefer higher-pitched singing. Infant Behavior and Development, 21(4), 799-805.
Trehub, Unyk, & Trainor. (1993a). Adults identify infant-directed music across cultures. Infant Behavior and Development, 16(2), 193-211.
Trehub, S. E., & Trainor, L. J. (1998). Singing to infants: Lullabies and play songs. Advances in infancy research, 12, 43-78.
Trehub, S. E., Unyk, A. M., Kamenetsky, S. B., Hill, D. S., Trainor, L. J., Henderson, J. L., & Saraza, M. (1997). Mothers'' and fathers'' singing to infants. Developmental Psychology, 33(3), 500.
Trehub, S. E., Unyk, A. M., & Trainor, L. J. (1993b). Maternal singing in cross-cultural perspective. Infant Behavior and Development, 16(3), 285-295.
Trueswell, J. C. (2012). Studying Language Processing Using Eye Movements. Research Methods in Child Language: A Practical Guide, 177-190.
Tsang, C. D., & Conrad, N. J. (2010). Does the message matter? The effect of song type on infants'' pitch preferences for lullabies and playsongs. Infant Behavior and Development, 33(1), 96-100.
Unyk, A. M., Trehub, S. E., Trainor, L. J., & Schellenberg, E. G. (1992). Lullabies and simplicity: a cross-cultural perspective. Psychology of Music, 20(1), 15-28.
Wallace, W. T. (1994). Memory for music: effect of melody on recall of text. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 20(6), 1471.
Werker, J. F., Pons, F., Dietrich, C., Kajikawa, S., Fais, L., & Amano, S. (2007). Infant-directed speech supports phonetic category learning in English and Japanese. Cognition, 103(1), 147-162. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2006.03.006
Zhou, W. (2014). A singing approach to shared reading: The effects upon U.S. kindergarteners'' Chinese vocabulary acquisition and retention. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 74(8-A(E)), No Pagination Specified.  


QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top