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研究生:許景順
研究生(外文):Chingshun J. Sheu
論文名稱:後現代時代的存在主義倫理學
論文名稱(外文):An Existential Ethics for a Postmodern Age
指導教授:唐格理唐格理引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kirill Thompson
口試委員:劉紀蕙漢駿緯
口試委員(外文):Joyce LiuChris Hein
口試日期:2015-02-24
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:外國語文學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:英文
論文頁數:102
中文關鍵詞:倫理學倫理鏈意義經濟存在主義後結構主義沙特巴迪烏史托納
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The ethical turn in postmodern thought has made ever more pressing the question, How is one to live one’s life? In this thesis, I propose an answer based on Jean-Paul Sartre’s existentialism, extended upon by the work of Alain Badiou.

Chapter One introduces an existential understanding of ethics and meaning, presenting concepts such as the ethical chain, the economy of meaning, and bad faith, that lead us to a perspectivist non-binding normative ethics that is compatible with the three poststructuralist tenets of performativity, contextualization, and the amelioration
of difference.

Chapter Two addresses the validity today of Sartrean existentialism — including not only Being and Nothingness but also the Notebooks for an Ethics, the two volumes of the Critique of Dialectical Reason, and the Hope Now interviews with Benny Levy—via a series of Refutations to charges that it is outdated; that it is irrational; that it is not universal and therefore not a philosophy; that it is nihilist; that it absolutizes freedom and is therefore relativist; that it is humanist; that it is metaphysical, or ontotheological; and that it is incompatible with the poststructuralist belief in the decentering of the center. I establish that Sartrean existentialism withstands these criticisms.

Chapter Three brings in the work of Alain Badiou to elaborate upon Sartre’s rather vague notion of an Apocalypse, which Badiou calls an event. I provide biographical and intellectual links between the work of Sartre and that of Badiou, before detailing how Badiou extends and enhances the Sartrean framework in his development of the structure of an event.

Chapter Four employs the Sartrean-Badiouian existentialist framework in a reading of John Williams’s novel, Stoner, whose protagonist seems ordinary and unsuccessful, but who is shown with the aid of my reading to lead a life full of
meaning. This reading also brings in details of Badiou’s four truth procedures and thus makes concrete his often abstract thought.

Chapter Five concludes with a summary of the previous four chapters, followed by a direct comparison of Sartre’s and Badiou’s thought. I then engage with two other leading postmodern ethical theories, Richard Rorty’s liberal ironism and Emmanuel Levinas and Jacques Derrida’s ethics of the Other, to show how Sartrean-Badiouian existentialism offers the more comprehensive ethical framework.

Acknowledgements and Dedication 2
Abstract 3
Contents 5
I. Introduction: Background and Outline 6
II. Jean-Paul Sartre’s Existentialism: Refutations 17
1. Existentialism is passe 19
2. Existentialism is a form of irrationality 20
3. Existentialism is not universal and therefore not a philosophy 21
4. Existentialism is a form of nihilism 26
5. Existentialism absolutizes freedom and is therefore a form of relativism 32
6. Existentialism is a form of humanism 36
7. Existentialism is a form of metaphysics or ontotheology 43
8. Existentialism maintains a fixed and stable center 45
III. Alain Badiou’s Existentialism: Structural Addenda 48
IV. A Meaningful Life: Reading John Williams’s Stoner 63
V. Conclusion: Summary and Response to Criticism 82
Works Cited 92

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