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研究生:林佳楠
研究生(外文):Chia-Nan Lin
論文名稱:再思劇場性與操演性:亞陶與歐蘭的身體想像
論文名稱(外文):Rethinking Theatricality and Performativity: The Body Imaginaries of Artaud and Orlan
指導教授:黃宗慧黃宗慧引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tsung-Huei Huang
口試委員:黃毓秀林宛瑄
口試委員(外文):Yu-Hsiu HuangWan-Shuan Lin
口試日期:2015-06-26
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:外國語文學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:英文
論文頁數:133
中文關鍵詞:亞陶歐蘭景觀劇場性虛擬性操演性觀看關係
外文關鍵詞:ArtaudOrlanspectacletheatricalityvirtualityperformativityspectatorship
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摘要

本論文以比較方法研究法國藝術家亞陶與歐蘭的劇場語彙、身體表演、及觀看關係。除點出兩人作品中相似的主題,也將強調其藝術手法及社會影響力的相異之處。第一章將闡述德希達所言之古典劇場性的症狀,並以柏拉圖的洞穴寓言、紀.德博的景觀批判、及菲蘿的可逆之律為例證。其後,將引用塞穆爾.韋伯緣自德西達觀點所定義的劇場性,分析亞陶與歐蘭景觀暴力的誘惑與虛擬的風險。
第二章將聚焦於兩位藝術家的身體表演。透過巴特勒提出的操演性之理論,本章將分析他們為何及如何重新詮釋被規範論述性/別化與階層化的身體,而進一步提出人/非人的另類表演美學。關於巴特勒在劇場性論述上的疑慮,他們的例證或可提供新的思考方向。第三章將勾勒亞陶與歐蘭創作背景的歷史脈絡,檢視現代性與後現代性境況對兩人藝術生產的影響。視覺娛樂的發展對藝術生產帶來優勢也帶來衝擊,而兩人的觀看理論與實際的觀眾互動也反映社會中視覺範型與藝術功能的改變。本章最後將以洪席耶「解放的觀眾」為引,再探觀者被動性的議題,並反思個人主義式的美學何以能為德博擔憂的自閉現象開啟新機。
由一、二章的創作意圖至第三章的觀眾參與,本論文將透過不同角度檢視兩人的理論與實務,並釐清在表演藝術的交流中,不同參與端的投入及得失。

關鍵詞:亞陶、歐蘭、景觀、劇場性 、虛擬性、操演性 、觀看關係


English Abstract

The thesis adopts a comparative approach to investigate the theatrical expressions, bodily performances, and spectatorship of the two French artists, Artaud and Orlan. Apart from their similar concerns, I will also foreground their disparities in methods and culminated consequences. The opening chapter will pursue Derrida’s problematic of the symptoms of classical theatricality, which will be illustrated by Plato’s cave metaphor, Guy Debord’s critique of the spectacle, and Josette Feral’s law of reversibility. Afterwards, I will draw on Samuel Weber’s deconstructive definition to address the seductiveness and virtual risk of Artaud’s and Orlan’s theaters.
The second chapter turns to their bodily performance. In the light of Judith Butler’s theory of performativity, I intend to underscore why and how they re-signify the body conditioned by the sexual differentiation and hierarchization of normative discourses, proceeding to offer alternative performances bordering on the human and the non-human. Regarding Butler’s more ambiguous accounts about theatricality, their practices may also provide some new ways of thinking. The third chapter will contextualize Artaud’s and Orlan’s creations in the social conditions of modernity and postmodernity. The growth of visual entertainments engenders niches as well as crises for their artistic productions. Observably, their ideas about spectatorship and their actual audience participation also reflect the changes in visual regimes and functions of arts. Finally, I will use Jacques Ranciere’s “the emancipated spectator” to revisit the problem of spectatorial passivity and to reflect on how his individualist aesthetics can shed new light on Debord’s universal autism.
Evolving from artistic intentions in the first two chapters to audience participation in the third, this thesis will examine their theories and practices from different perspectives, with a view to clarifying the investments of different parties in the artistic communication of performances.

Keywords: Artaud, Orlan, spectacle, theatricality, virtuality, performativity, spectatorship

Table of Contents

Acknowledgements i
Mandarin Abstract ii
English Abstract iv
Table of Contents vi
Table of Figures viii

Introduction 1
I. Motivation 1
II. Literature Review 4
III. Methodology 9
Chapter One: Theatricality and Virtuality 15
I. Theatricality: Historical Debates 16
A. Anti-theatricality 16
B. Semiotic Theatricality 20
C. Deconstructionist Perspective 22
II. Theatricality of Artaud and Orlan 28
A. Artaud: A Metaphysical Poetry of Space 29
B. Orlan: Baroque Theatricality 38
III. Conclusion 49
Chapter Two: Theatricality and Performativity 51
I. Theatricality and Performativity 52
A. Paradigm Shift: From Theater to Performance 52
B. Butler: Performance and Performativity 56
II. Hermaphrodite in Performance 62
A. Artaud 62
B. Orlan 76
III. Conclusion: Toward a Prefigurative Aesthetics 90
Chapter Three: Spectatorships in Modernity and Postmodernity 93
I. The Conditions of Modernity 93
A. The Rise of the Director 94
B. The Problem of the Audience 97
C. Artaud and His Spectators 98
D. The Paradox of Failure 102
II. The Conditions of Postmodernity 106
A. Postmodern Directors 107
B. Spectators as Tourists 109
C. Orlan and Her Spectators 111
III. Toward A Dissensual Aesthetics 115
Chapter Four: Retrospect and Prospect 119

Works Cited 124


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Deleuze, Gilles and Felix Guattari. Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia. Trans. Rober Hurley, Mark Seem, and Helen R. Lane. Pref. Michel Foucault. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1983. Print.
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Graver, David. “Antonin Artaud and the Authority of Text, Spectacle, and Performance.” Contours of the Theatrical Avant-Garde: Performance and Textuality. Ed. James M. Harding. Michigan: U of Michigan P, 2000. 43-57. Print.
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Performance and Filmography
Orlan, Carnal Art. Dir. Stephan Oriach. Perf. Orlan, Connie Chung, Gladys Fabre. Myriapodus Films, 2001. Youtube. Web. 25 Sep. 2014. Documentary.
Swallow. Dir. Po-yuan Chung. Perf. Jing-hsin Hsiao, Chia-nan Lin, Pei Tseng et al. Shinehouse Theatre. Experimental Theatre of National Theatre in Taipei. 26-28 Oct. 2012. Performance.
The Documentary Study: Drapery—The Baroque. Perf. Orlan. A History of Performance Art on the Riviera from 1951 until Now. Web. 15 April 2015. Video Recording.
To Have Done with the Judgment of God: A Radio Play. Radio play by Antonin Artaud. Perf. Antonin Artaud, Maria Casares, Roger Blin, and Paule Thevenin. Pacifica Radio Archives. Rec. Feb. 1947. Open Culture. Web. 31. Oct. 2014. Recording.
中文
楊莉莉。〈標榜演出之戲劇性:法國表/導演新面向〉。《戲劇學刊》第13期(2011年1月):161-93。《華藝線上資料庫》2015年05月22日。


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