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研究生:黃海寧
研究生(外文):Hai-ning Huang
論文名稱:再生能源補貼適用於補貼協定之限制及新政策空間
論文名稱(外文):Legal Constraints on Renewable Energy Subsidies under the SCM Agreement and the New Policy Space
指導教授:羅昌發羅昌發引用關係林彩瑜林彩瑜引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chang-fa LoTsai-yu Lin
口試委員:楊光華施文真
口試委員(外文):Guang-hwa YangWen-chen Shih
口試日期:2015-07-15
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:法律學研究所
學門:法律學門
學類:一般法律學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:188
中文關鍵詞:再生能源再生能源補貼政策空間國際經貿規範(WTO規範)氣候變遷減緩永續發展綠色經濟產業政策爭端解決
外文關鍵詞:Renewable energyRenewable energy subsidyWTOSCM AgreementClimate change mitigationSustainable developmentGreen economypolicy spaceindustrial policydispute settlement
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政府透過補貼此一經濟政策工具促進再生能源產業之發展,在WTO規範下是否具備正當性,於Canada – Renewable Energy一案後,產生相當熱烈的討論。換言之,政府透過補貼扶植並促進初生的再生能源產業,使其達到相當經濟規模並得與傳統能源競爭,最終達到代替再生能源之市場效果,是否為WTO規範所容許,不僅關乎於WTO規範之解釋,更涉及「再生能源」之認識、「能源治理」之了解、「補貼」之經濟分析與法律解釋之辯論、對於貿易及氣候變遷與貿易及永續發展之關聯性、對於貿易規範與產業政策之互動等諸多層次且相當豐富之探討。
在分析再生能源補貼在國際經貿規範之脈絡下可能面臨之侷限前,本文擬從「促進再生能源之發展」及「補貼措施」,爬梳並彙整再生能源補貼之政策正當性。首先,從氣候變遷規範、永續發展及綠色經濟,整理並確認發展再生能源之重要性。其次,當政府基於氣候變遷之減緩、永續發展或綠色經濟轉型而欲促進再生能源發展時,其面臨之市場失靈與能源市受傳統能源補貼而扭曲之困境,以及政府透過補貼解決上述困境時之論理基礎。第三,政府實施再生能源補貼之類型化。在透過上述分析確認再生補貼之政策正當性後,本文擬分析多數再生能源補貼措施於補貼協定下可能面臨被控訴之風險或違反既有規範。此外,雖然Canada – Renewable Energy之上訴機構試圖在補貼協定下,透過受有利益要件之解釋,為再生能源補貼建立安全港,惟由於其解釋方法及策略過於偏離以市場為基準之基礎,故該等安全港實際上並不堅固。
因此,本文擬提出單純從解釋論並無法有效解決再生能源補貼於補貼協定下面臨之侷限。本文認為透過立法建構再生能源補貼之安全港始能建構再生能源補貼於WTO規範下之新政策空間,故提出以《關於再生能源補貼之瞭瞭解書》作為立法回應。最後,本文另以專章討論挾帶自製率之再生能源補貼引發之爭議,雖然現行WTO規範及主流見解認為挾帶自製率之再生能源補貼不具備進入安全港之正當性,且若考量自製率作為產業政策之效率及其對於外國投資之誘因,似乎無法正當化其進入再生能源補貼之安全港。惟本文仍試圖透國綠能政策目的與藍海產業政策作為一整體觀察,若藍海產業政策程度上仍有助於綠能政策目的之達成,則其於WTO下未必沒有被正當化之空間。


Renewable Energy subsidy is one of the most widely used policy instruments to promote and develop the renewable energy industry. The rationale behind the renewable energy subsidy can be found from the two perspectives. One is the policy objectives of promoting renewable energy, which the foundation could be established, based on several international law system or principles, such as climate change mitigation, sustainable development, and green economy. The other is the rationale of using subsidy as the policy instrument to develop infant industry and helps such industry to reach the scale. From both perspectives, the legitimacy of the renewable energy subsidy can be established.
After the case of Canada – Renewable Energy regarding whether the feed-in tariff attaching local content requirement is consistent with the relevant WTO rules has been raised by the European Union and Japan to the WTO dispute settlement system, the legitimacy of renewable subsidy as well as its policy space under WTO law have become the spotlight in both academic and practicing field. The Appellate Body Report of Canada – Renewable Energy has even busted out controversies on how to interpret and understand the definition of subsidy which is set forth in the SCM Agreement. In other words, even the renewable energy subsidy is recognized as have strong legitimate basis, the policy space of using subsidy to promote and develop renewable energy industry may be constrained under WTO regal regime since it might be easily challenged as prohibited or actionable subsidy. In addition, the controversies resulting from the Canada – Renewable Energy Appellate Body Report also shows that simply building up the “safe harbor” of renewable energy subsidy under WTO law through the treaty interpretation may not help. Rather, the law reform may be the appropriate approach to safeguard the policy space of renewable energy subsidy under WTO legal regime.
Based on the foregoing, the thesis firstly tries to identify the importance of the renewable energy, and the barriers of promoting and developing the renewable energy industry. Secondly, the thesis tries to identify the rationale of using subsidy as a policy instrument to overcome the barriers and further identifies the typology of the current renewable subsidies which are imposed by the WTO members. Thirdly, the thesis argues that under SCM Agreement, most types of the renewable energy subsidies fall within the meaning of the definition of subsidy and may be challenged under SCM Agreement, namely, the policy space of renewable subsidy is constrained. In addition, taking the analysis under Canada – Renewable Energy Appellate Body Report, the thesis further argues that simply building up the “safe harbor” of renewable energy subsidy under WTO law by treaty interpretation may not help. Lastly, the thesis argues that the law reform may be the appropriate approach to safeguard the policy space of the renewable energy subsidy. The thesis then provide a draft “Understanding in Respect of the Renewable Energy Subsidy” in the WTO framework as the conclusion. As a noting chapter, after providing the draft Understanding, the thesis tries develop the possibility of establishing the legitimacy of using local content requirement attaching in the renewable energy subsidy.


謝辭 ……………………………………………………………………………i
摘要 …………………………………………………………………………..iv
ABSTRACT …………………………………………………………………………..vi
目錄 …………………………………………………………………………..iv
圖、表目錄 ………………………………………………………………………….vii

第一章 導論 1
第一節 研究背景與目的 1
第二節 研究範圍及研究方法 4
第一項 研究範圍 4
第二項 研究方法 5
第三節 本文章節安排 6
第四節 再生能源之定義及種類 8
第一項 再生能源之定義 8
第二項 再生能源之種類 13
第五節 本文研究範圍面臨之限制 17
第一項 再生能源補貼涉及三個不同市場 18
第二項 「再生能源製造補貼」可為貨品貿易或服務貿易規範 19
第三項 在GATS下再生能源製造補貼之政策空間將不受侷限 23

第二章 再生能源發展之重要性-從氣候變遷與永續發展歸納其國際共識 24
第一節 再生能源與氣候變遷之減緩 25
第一項 氣候變遷之成因與影響 25
第二項 氣候變遷之共識與國際規範 27
第三項 氣候變遷減緩下的再生能源 33
第二節 再生能源與永續發展 36
第一項 永續發展之概念及發展脈絡 37
第二項 永續發展下的再生能源 40
第三節 再生能源與永續發展之新路線-綠色經濟 44
第一項 永續發展之新路線-綠色經濟 44
第二項 綠色經濟下的再生能源 45
第四節 小結 47

第三章 再生能源補貼之政策基礎及類型化 48
第一節 發展再生能源面臨之障礙 50
第一項 再生能源之市場失靈 51
第二項 受到扭曲之能源市場 58
第二節 再生能源補貼之政策基礎 61
第一項 補貼之意義及功能 62
第二項 再生能源補貼之論理 65
第三節 再生能源補貼之類型化 72
第一項 針對再生能源製造(生產者) 75
第二項 爭議類型:針對再生能源製造之法規誘因機制 77
第三項 針對再生能源設備產品(製造商) 85
第四項 針對與再生能源有關之服務(提供者) 86
第五項 非屬於以上類型者 87
第四節 小結 88

第四章 補貼協定之解釋與適用對於再生能源補貼之政策空間構成侷限 91
第一節 再生能源補貼可能違反補貼協定 92
第一項 多數再生能源補貼符合補貼協定下關於補貼之定義 93
第二項 多數再生能源補貼可能構成禁止性補貼或可控訴補貼 100
第三項 補貼協定之規範架構不具有容納再生能源補貼之政策考量 ……………………………………………………………...106
第二節 再生能源補貼引發爭端:Canada – Renewable Energy 108
第一項 案件事實 109
第二項 TRIMs及GATT部分之法律分析 110
第三項 補貼協定部分之法律分析 112
第三節 Canada – Renewable Energy後補貼定義之撼動 123
第一項 Canada – Renewable Energy引發之對於「受有利益」解釋之 批評 ……………………………………………………………...124
第二項 Canada – Renewable Energy帶來關於「補貼協定存在侷限」之省思 ……………………………………………………………...129
第三項 本文對於Canada – Renewable Energy之觀察 130
第四節 小結 133

第五章 侷限及不確定性之立法回應-建構《與再生能源補貼有關之瞭解書》 ………………………………………………………………………...136
第一節 立法改革或建構再生能源補貼之政策空間似為當前趨勢 137
第二節 以《關於再生能源補貼瞭解書》建構新政策空間 138
第一項 形式選擇 138
第二項 實質內容 140
第三項 程序要件 148
第三節 《與再生能源補貼有關之瞭解書》可能之規範模型 150
第四節 小結 152

第六章 挾帶自製率之再生能源補貼是否具備正當性之可能性分析 153
第一節 補貼協定及GATT第III條之關係 155
第一項 補貼協定與GATT第III條彼此並無衝突 155
第二項 僅挾帶自製率之法規誘因機制有GATT第III條之適用 156
第二節 自製率進入再生能源補貼安全港之可能性 157
第一項 自製率對於再生能源補貼所追求之政策目的具有協力作用 ……………………………………………………………...157
第二項 自製率在補貼協定中被重新定位之可能性 158
第三節 自製率在GATT及TRIMs下難以被正當化 160
第一項 挾帶自製率之再生能源補貼違反GATT第III條 160
第二項 挾帶自製率之再生能源補貼違反TRIMs第2.1條 162
第三項 挾帶自製率之再生能源補貼無法主張GATT第XX條 162
第四節 再生能源補貼挾帶自製率之正當性似應維持體系間一致 165

第七章 結論 167

參考文獻 ……………………………………………………………………………174
中文資料 ………………………………………………………………….174
英文資料 ……………………………………………………………….....175


中文資料
專書
高銘志等人(2013),《再生能源政策與法律概論》,台北:元照。
羅昌發(2010),《國際貿易法》,台北:元照。
期刊/書之篇章/研討會文章/研究報告
高銘志(民國102年),〈促進再生能源發電產業發展國際貿易法爭議之研究〉,楊豐碩編著,《國際經貿整合與能源產業政策》,台北:財團法人台灣經濟研究院。
彭心儀(2012),〈再生能源發展與國際經貿法補貼爭議與我國補貼方式建議〉,清華大學科技法律研究所。
楊光華(2015),〈補貼協定下「受有利益」要件新解:市場基準之偏離?〉,《第15屆國際經貿法學發展學術研討會》。

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Romero, Jose & Karine Siegwart, A Survey of Kyoto tools for Greenhouse Gas Reduction: Speculation on Post-Kyoto Scenarios, in International Trade Regulation and the Mitigation of Climate Change (Thomas Cottier et al. eds., 2009).
Rubini, Luca, The Subsidization of Renewable Energy in the WTO: Issues and Perspectives, NCCR Working Paper No 2011/32 (2011).
Rubini, Luca, Ain’t Wastin’ Time No More: Subsidies for Renewable Energy, The SCM Agreement, Policy Space, and Law Reform, 15(2) J. Int’l Econ. L. 525 (2012).
Rubini, Luca, ‘The Good, The Bad, and the Ugly.’ Lessons on Methodology in Legal Analysis from the Recent WTO Litigation on Renewable Energy Subsidies, 48(5) Journal of World Trade 895 (2014).
Sachs, J. & A. Warner, Globalization and International Competitiveness: Some Broad Lessons of the Past Decades, in The Global Competitiveness Report (2000).
Sands, Philippe, Sustainable Development: Treaty, Custom and the Cross-fertilization of International Law, in International Law and Sustainable Development: Past Achievements and Future Challenges (Alan Boyle & David Freestone eds., 1999).
Sawin, Janet L., Policy Lessons for the Advancement & Diffusion of Renewable Energy Technologies Around the World, International Conference for Renewable Energy, Thematic Background Paper (2004).
Schwartz, Warren F. & Eugene W. Harper, Jr., The Regulation of Subsidies Affecting International Trade, 70(5) Mich. L. Rev. 831 (1972).
Skyes, Alan O., The Economics of WTO Rules on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures, Chicago John M. Olin Law & Economics Eorking Paper No. 186 (2nd Series, 2003).
Shadikhodjaev, Sherzod, Renewable Energy and Government Support: Time to ‘Green’ the SCM Agreement?, First View Article, World Trade Review 1 (2015).
Skyes, Alan O., The Questionable Case for Subsidies Regulations: A Comparative Perspective, 2 Journal of Legal Analysis 474 (2010).
Skyes, Alan O., Countervailing Duty Law: An Economic Critique, 89 Colum. L. Rev. 199 (1989).
Snape, R., International Regulation of Subsidies, The World Economy, 139 (1991).
Stephenson,Sherry, Addressing Local Content Requirements in a Sustainable Enerfy Trade Agreement (2013).
Stiglitz, Joseph E., A New Agenda for Global Warming, Economists’ Voice (2006).
Stocker, Thomas, Earth in the Greenhouse — A Challenge for the Twenty-first Century in International Trade Regulation and the Mitigation of Climate Change.
Sweeney, Gillingham &, Market Failure and the Structure of Externalities, in Harnessing Renewable Energy in Electric Power Systems: Theory, Practice, Policy (A. Jorge Padilla & Richard Schmalensee eds., 2010).
Timoshenko, Alexandre, From Stockholm to Rio: The institutionalization of Sustainable Development, in SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND INTERNATIONAL LAW (W. Lang ed., 1995).
Unruh, Gregory C., Understanding Carbon Lock-in, 28(12) Energy Policy (2000).
Wind, Izaak, HS Codes and the Renewable Energy Sector, ICTSD Programme on Trade and Environment (2008).
Wiser, Ryan et al, Building a "margin of safety" into renewable energy procurements: A review of experience with contract failure, California Energy Commission Consultant Report (2006).
Contributions or Reports from International Organizations
ICTSD, Emerging Issues in the Interface between Trade, Climate Changes and Sustainable Energy, ICTSD Discussion Paper 5 (2005).
IMF, IMF, Fuel and Food Subsidies: Issues and Reform Options 35 (2008)
IPCC, Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation Special Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 958 (Ottmar Edenhofer et al. eds., 2012).
IPCC, Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report, Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Core Writing Team, Pachauri, R.K. & Reisinger, A. eds., 2007)
IPCC, Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report (Summary for Policymakers), 5 (2007)
Committee on the Science of Climate Change, National Research Council, Climate Change Science: An Analysis os Some Key Questions (2001).
PCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4), Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, Contribution of working group I to the fourth accessment report of the IPCC (2007).
IPCC, Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report (Synthesis Report), 30-31 (2007)
ECT Secretariat, Trade-friendly promotion of Renewable Energy Sources Guidelines for Best Practices, ECT Secretariat Occasional Paper 2003 (3), 8-9.
IEA Renewable Energy Working Party, Renewable Energy into Mainstram 9 (2002),
IEA, Energy Statistics Manual 115, (2005)
IEA, World Energy Outlook 2006 (2006).
IEA, World Energy Outlook 2008 381-386 (2008).
IEA, World Energy Outlook 2011 510 (2011);
IEA, OPEC, OECD, World Bank Joint Report, Analysis of the Scope of Energy Subsidies and Suggestions for the G-20 Initiave, Prepared for submission to the G-20 Summit Meeting, 8 (2010).
UNDP, Fighting Climate Change: Human Solidarity in a Divided World, Human and Development Report 2007/2008, 3 (2008).
UNFCCC Secretariat, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Handbook, 17 (2006).
Climate Change: The IPCC Scientific Assessment, Report prepared for Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Working Group I & J.T. Houghton et al eds., 1990).
UNEP, Analysing Our Energy Future: Some Pointers for Policy-makers 2 (2007).
UNEP, Green Jobs: Towards Decent Work in a Sustainable, Low Carbon World (2008).
UNEP, Feed-in Tariffs as a Policy Instrument for Pormoting Renewabel Energies and Green Economies in Developing Countries (2012).
UNEP, Reforming Energy Subsidies: Opportunities to Contribute to the Climate Change Agenda 6 (2008).
UNEP, Green Economy Report, Towards a Green Economy: Pathways to Sustainable Development and Poverty Eradication 207 (2011).
UNEP, Green Jobs: Towards Decent Work in a Sustainable, Low Carbon World (2008).
UN, Working towards a Balanced and Inclusive Green Economy: A United Nations System-wide Perspective, Prepared by the Environment Management Group, 32 (2011).
UN, Working towards a Balanced and Inclusive Green Economy, A United Nations System-wide Perspective 39 (2011).
World Bank, International Trade and Climate Change: Economic, Legal and Institutional Perspectives 2 (2007).
World Bank, Global Tracking Framework, vol. 3, 194 (2013).
WTO, Harnessing Trade for Sustainable Development and a Green Economy (2011).
WTO, Trade and Environment at the WTO 24 (2004)
WTO & UNEP, Trade and Climate Change (2009).
WHO, Fuel for Life: Household Energy and Health (2006).
Research from Institutions or NGO
ICTSD, LINKING TRADE, CLIMATE AND ENERGY (2006).
ICTSD, Fostering Low Carbon Growth: The Case for a Sustainable Energy Trade Agreement (2011).
ICTSD, Fostering Low Carbon Growth: The Case for Sustainable Energy Trade Agreement, ICTSD Global Platform on Climate Change, Trade and Sustainable Energy (2009).
IISD, Impoverishment and Sustainable Development: A Systems Approach (1996).
IISD, TRADE AND ENVIRONMENT: A RESOURCE BOOK (2007).
REN21, Renewable Global Status Report, 2009 Update.
REN21, Renewables 2013 Global Status Report (2013).
Cases
Law on Promotion of Electricity Generation from Renewable Energies, Case NN27/2000, Commission Decision of 23 May 2002;
Law for the Protection of Electricity Generation on the Basis of Combined Heat and Power, Case NN68/2000, Commission Decision of 23 May 2002.
GATT Panel Report, EEC – Measures on Animal Feed Proteins, L/4599–25S (Adopted) (Mar. 14, 1978);
GAT Panel Report, EEC – Payments and Subsidies Paid to Processors and Producers of Oilseeds and Related Animal-Feed Proteins, L/6627 (adopted Jan. 25, 1990), BISD 37S/86.
GATT Panel Report, Itilian – Discrimination Against Imported Agricultural Machinery, , L/833 (adopted Oct. 23, 1958), BISD 7S/60;
GATT Panel Report, Spain – Measures Concerning Domestic Sale of Soybean Oil, L/5142 (Unadopted) (Jun. 17, 1981);
Panel Report, Indonesia – Certain Measures Affecting the Automobile Industry, WT/DS54/R, WT/DS55/R, WT/DS59/R, WT/DS64/R (Jul. 2, 1998).
Panel Report, Canada – Certain Measures Affecting the Automotive Industry, WT/DS139/R, WT/DS142/R (Feb. 11, 2000).
Panel Report, Canada – Measures Affecting the Export of Civilian Aircraft, WT/DS70/R (Apr. 14, 1999).
Panel Report, China – Measures Affecting Imports of Automobile Parts, WT/DS339/R, WT/DS340/R, WT/DS342/R (Jul. 18, 2008).
Panel Report, EC – Measures Prohibiting the Importation and Marketing of Seal Products, WT/DS400/R, WT/DS401/R (Nov. 23, 2013).
Panel Report, Korea – Measures Affecting Trade in Commercial Vessels, 7.420, WT/DS273/R (Mar. 7, 2005).
Panel Report, Canada – Certain Measures Affecting the Renewable Energy Generation Sector, WT/DS412/R, WT/DS426/R (Dec. 19, 2012).
Panel Report, Turkey – Measures Affecting the Importation of Rice, WT/DS334/R (Sept. 21, 2007).
Panel Report, US – Measures Affecting the Importation, Internal Sale and Use of Tobacco, DS44/R (Oct. 4, 1994)
Panel Report, US – Measures Treating Export Restraints as Subsidies, WT/DS194/R (June 29, 2011).
Panel Report, US – Tax Treatment for “Foreign Sales Corporations”, WT/DS108/R (Oct. 8, 1999).
Panel Report, US – Measures Affecting Trade in Large Civil Aircraft (Second Complaint), WT/DS353/R (Mar. 31, 2011)
Panel Report, US – Final Countervailing Duty Determination with Respect to Certain Softwood Lumber From Canda, WT/DS257/R (Aug. 29, 2003)
Panel Report, US – Subsidies on Upland Cotton, WT/DS267/R (Sept. 8, 2004).
Panel Report, US – Standards for Reformulated and Conventional Gasoline, WT/DS2/R (Jan. 29, 1996).
Appellate Body Report, Canada – Certain Measures Affecting the Renewable Energy Generation Sector, WT/DS412/AB/R, WT/DS426/AB/R (May 6, 2013).
Appellate Body Report, Canada – Measures Affecting the Export of Civilian Aircraft, WT/DS70/AB/R (Aug. 2, 1999).
Appellate Body Report, Canada – Certain Measures Affecting the Automotive Industry, WT/DS139/AB/R, WT/DS142/AB/R (May 31, 2000).
Appellate Body Report, Canada – Certain Measures Concerning Periodicals, WT/DS31/AB/R (Jun. 30, 1997).
Appellate Body Report, China – Measures Related to the Exportation of Rare Earths, Tungsten and Molybdenum, WT/DS431/AB/R, WT/DS432/AB/R, WT/DS433/AB/R (Aug. 7, 2014).
Appellate Body Report, EC and Certain Member States – Measures Affecting Trade in Large Civil Aircraft, WT/DS316/AB/R (May 18, 2011).
Appellate Body Report, EC – Measures Prohibiting the Importation and Marketing of Seal Products, WT/DS400/AB/R, WT/DS401/AB/R (May 22, 2014).
Appellate Body Report, EC – Trade Description of Sardines, WT/DS231/AB/R (Sept. 26, 2002).
Appellate Body Report, US – Subsidies on Upland Cotton, WT/DS267/AB/R (Mar. 3, 2005).
Appellate Body Report, Japan – Countervailing Duites on Dynamic Random Access Memories from Korea, WT/DS336/AB/R (Nov. 28, 2007)
Appellate Body Report, Japan – Taxes on Alcoholic Beverages, p. 16, WT/DS8/AB/R, WT/DS10/AB/R, WT/DS11/AB/R (Oct. 4, 1996)
Appellate Body Report, US – Definitive Anti-Dumping and Countervailing Duties on Certain Products from China, WT/DS379/AB/R (Mar. 11, 2011).
Appellate Body Report, US – Final Countervailing Duty Determination with Respect to Certain Softwood Lumber From Canada, WT/DS257/AB/R (Jan. 19, 2004).
Appellate Body Report, United States – Measures Affecting Trade in Large Civil Aircraft (Second Complaint), ¶ 613, WT/DS353/AB/R (Mar. 12, 2012).
Appellate Body Report, US – Tax Treatment for “Foreign Sales Corporations”, WT/DS108/AB/R (Feb. 24, 2000).
Appelalte Body Report, US – Standards for Reformulated and Conventional Gasoline, p. 22, WT/DS2/AB/R (Apr. 29, 1996).
Appellate Body Report, US – Measures affecting the Cross-Border Supply Gambling and Betting Services, WT/DS285/AB/R (Apr. 7, 2005).
International Conventions & Agreements
Statute of the International Renewable Energy Agency
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework on Cliamte Change
Agreement on Subsidy and Countervailing Measures
Understanding on the Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes
International Documents
Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future, Transmitted to the General Assembly as an Annex to Document A/42/427 (1987)
1991 Services Sectorial Classification List, Note by the Secretariat, MTN.GNG/W/120 (Jul. 10, 1991).
Guidelines for the Scheduling of Specific Commitments under the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), S/L/92 (adopted by the Council for Trade in Services) (Mar. 23, 2001).
WTO, Energy Services, Background Note by the Secretariat, S/C/W/311 (Jan. 12, 2010).
Committee on Specific Commitments, Reports of Meetings, S/CSC/M/16 to S/CSC/M/18/Rev.1.
Protection of Global Climate for Present and Future Generation of Mankind, G.A. Res. 43/53, UN Doc. A/RES/43/53 (Dec. 6, 1988).
Protection of global climate for present and future generations of mankind, G.A. Res. 45/212, U.N. Doc. A/RES/45/212 (Dec. 21, 1990).
WEHAB Working Group, Action for Energy 11 (2002).
Commission on Sustainable Development Report on the ninth session, E/CN.17/2001/19 (5 May 5, 2000 and Apr. 16-27, 2001).
Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development
The Future we Want, G.A. Res. 66/288, U.N. Doc. A/RES/66/288 (Jul. 27, 2012),
International Year of Sustainable Energy for All, 2012, Report of the Secretary-General, U.N. Doc. A/67/314 (Aug. 16, 2012), paras. 14, 21.
UNCTD, The Green Economy: Trade and Sustainable Development Implications, Background note prepared by the UNCTAD secretariat for the Ad Hoc Expert Meeting, 6 (2010).
Minutes of the Special Meeting held on Dec. 20, 1999, WTO Doc. G/SCM Agreement/M/22 (17 Feb. 17, 2000).
Domestic Legal Documents
Directive 2001/77/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 September 2001 on the promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources in the internal electricity market, EU Directive 2001/77/EC.
EC, The Support of Electricity from Renewable Energy Sources, Accompanying document to the proposal for a direction of the European parliament and of the council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources, 16 (2008).
Internet Sources
Sustainable Energy for All,SE4ALL , http://www.se4all.org/about-us/.
Global Tracking Framework, http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/energy/publication/Global-Tracking-Framework-Report.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, http://www.ipcc.ch/index.htm.
International Renewable Energy Agency, http://www.irena.org/home/index.aspx?PriMenuID=12&mnu=PriPriMenuID=12&mnu=Pri.
International Energy Agency, http://www.iea.org/.
IEA, Renewables Information 2013 11 (2013), http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/docserver/download/6113181e.pdf?expires=1421409177&id=id&accname=ocid53016431a&checksum=4478FFD49A04E480763E8453E621A19A.
International Energy Agency, Renewables, Solar, http://www.iea.org/topics/renewables/subtopics/solar/.
CPC ver. 2:engineering services for power projects (CPC 83324), http://unstats.un.org/unsd/cr/registry/regcs.asp?Cl=25&Lg=3&Co=83324.
Kyoto Protocol, http://unfccc.int/kyoto_protocol/items/2830.php.
The Future We Want, https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/rio20
Sustainable Development Goals, http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symb
ol=A/RES/66/288&Lang=E.
Sustainable Energy for All, Renewable Energy, http://www.se4all.org/our-vision/our-objectives/renewable-energy/.
Green Economy Framework, http://unctad.org/en/Pages/DITC/Trade-and-Environment/Green-Economy.aspx.
UNEP, Green Economy Report: A Preview, http://www.unep.org/pdf/GreenEconomyReport-Preview_v2.0.pdf
WTO, Lamy calls for Dialogue on Trade and Energy in the WTO, https://www.wto.org/english/news_e/sppl_e/sppl279_e.htm;
Pascal Lamy, speech at the 20th World Energy Congress on Nov. 15, 2007 in Rome, https://www.wto.org/english/news_e/sppl_e/sppl80_e.htm.
WTO, Historic Development of the WTO Dispute Settlement System, https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/dispu_e/disp_settlement_cbt_e/c2s1p1_e.htm#fnt2.
Miscellaneous
G-20 Leader’s Statement, Energy Security and Climate Change, The G-20 Pittsburgh Summit (2009).


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