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研究生:柯亦儒
研究生(外文):Yi-Lu Ko
論文名稱:城市聯盟在氣候變遷領域的崛起與管制角色之初探
論文名稱(外文):The Role of Cities Networks in Climate Change Governance
指導教授:葉俊榮葉俊榮引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jiunn-Rong Yeh
口試委員:張文貞高仁川
口試委員(外文):Wen-Chen ChangRen-Chuan Kevin Kao
口試日期:2014-07-29
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:科際整合法律學研究所
學門:法律學門
學類:專業法律學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:104
中文關鍵詞:氣候變遷城市聯盟全球行政法跨國城市治理
外文關鍵詞:Climate ChangeCities networksMunicipal networksGlobal administrative law
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:3
  • 點閱點閱:284
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
  氣候變遷受到全球關注後,隨著議題的發展,全球治理的模式也產生了轉變。在過去國際環境法中多透過締結條約來進行全球性的議題治理,並以國家主權為中心的治理方式,由於氣候變遷議題大尺度、大規模但又對不同地區產生不同影響的特性,治理的主體也逐漸朝向多元化和去中心化發展。另外在氣候變遷談判陷入僵局後,許多城市為了有所突破紛紛主動採取超越自己國家的氣候變遷治理行動,甚至進一步出現了城市間的跨國聯盟。此種城市聯盟多利用軟法與自願承諾的模式,透過資訊技術交流、資金提供與遊說國家政府等策略對抗氣候變遷,與過去傳統國際環境法利用具有強制力與從上而下的規範有所差異。
  本文欲透過觀察此種城市聯盟與發展,梳理不同類型城市聯盟間的差異和功能,分析在近來這種橫向而去中心化的治理模式對於全球的氣候變遷治理的影響。本文並希望進一步結合氣候變遷跨國治理與全球行政法理論,探討城市與城市聯盟中在氣候變遷治理時代的角色。
  本文在觀察後發現城市聯盟的發展其實與國際對氣候議題的因應與治理是同時間進行的,代表了城市在認知與因應國際問題時的能力其實與國家無異。另外並提出了城市聯盟於因應氣候變遷領域中的主要幾種功能:1. 提供城市資訊交流與學習、能力建構;2. 遊說與影響國家和國際社會;3. 幫助城市獲取資金援助;4. 規則設定與指導。然而在城市聯盟對於其成員的管制上,並建立兩種模式:「協調支持模式」與「行動促進模式」後,再利用全球行政法理論檢視此兩種模式與目前的城市聯盟機制建構,認為目前城市聯盟所採取的管制手段都屬較彈性而強制力弱規範,但城市聯盟本身機制的程序與責信要求仍然有可以加強改善之處。未來若城市聯盟要有更強的管制效果,除了需要國家與國際的支持外,也必然需要更完整的機制與責信要求,並需要其他國際間的制衡與監督力量。


After Climate Change being recognized as an important issue, the normative system of global governance has also been changed. The traditional way of global governance through treaties or negotiation between countries cannot effectively solve problems of climate change, which are transcending national borders and having a lot of scientific uncertainties. To tackle these issues, there are more and more multi-layered actors to participate climate change governance and re-shape the global regulatory system. Along with the development of new global regulatory system, municipal governments become critical roles in the climate actions. Even though cities and local governments have no binding obligations to reduce greenhouse gases in the international treaties, many urban actors and cities actively took climate action like reducing greenhouse gases emissions and adopting adaptation measures to face global warming crisis, even forming cooperative networks between cities. These networks help to build the institutional capacity of municipalities to act on climate change and was described as a self-organizing and decentralizing structures. The cities networks gradually became new global governance tools in climate change, in addition to traditional hierarchical forms of regulation or control.
This thesis discusses why cities networks were established and how they regulate cities in the context of climate change. Through reviewing different cities networks and analyzing their characteristics, the author also tries to connect the result of observation with the study of global administrate law to discuss the role of cities networks in global climate regulatory regime.
 The author argues that, cities networks have few different functions to help cities dealing with climate change issue. Cities networks provide information exchange platforms to build the capacity of cities, and help cities to gain access to the funding programmes. They also represent city interests to lobby and influence national or international governments. They use soft regulations and give cities advices. After reviewing how cities networks engage in climate change, this thesis tries to build two regulation models of cities networks, and use the approach of global administrative law to analyze these models. The author argues that, if we want to empower cities networks more on climate change regime, the accountability of the cities networks needs to be improved.

1. 緒論 1
1.1. 問題意識 1
1.1. 研究範圍與方法 3
1.2. 本文架構和主要論點 6
2. 氣候變遷對與全球管制產生的影響:全球行政法理論與城市聯盟之崛起 8
2.1. 傳統國際法與國際環境法 8
2.2. 氣候變遷議題的規範過程 9
2.3. 全球行政法與多層次治理之崛起 10
2.4. 氣候變遷全球治理之問題:國家中心、利益本位與程序失調 15
3. 城市聯盟 19
3.1. 城市處理環境議題的重要性 19
3.2 城市聯盟的優點 31
3.3 城市聯盟起源與發展過程 33
3.4 氣候變遷領域中的城市聯盟 39
4 城市聯盟分析 74
4.1 城市聯盟的現狀 74
4.2 城市聯盟管制手段檢討 84
4.3 由城市聯盟的觀察出發思考臺灣 93
4.4 小結:城市聯盟角色反思 96
5 結論與展望 97
參考文獻 99

一、中文:
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李長彥,曾士瑋(2010),〈城市氣候治理理論初探-策略變遷、治理模式與風險評估〉,《城市學學刊》,第一卷第二期,頁37-73。
辛年豐(2014)。《環境風險的公私協力:國家任務變遷的觀點》。國立臺灣大學法律學院博士論文。
林子倫(2005)。〈後京都時代的城市角色:全球化與在地化之關鍵節點〉,http://e-info.org.tw/special/wed/2005/we05061001.htm(最後瀏覽日:07/20/2015)。
林子倫(2009)。〈後京都氣候談判的五大難題〉,《能源報導》。2009年10月,頁9-13。
林子倫,陳德翰(2006),〈美國聯邦主義下的地方氣候治理:加州全球暖化因應法之演進與評析〉,台灣國際法季刊,第9:2期,頁7-72。
林春元(2012)。《超越內國行政法與國際法--氣候變遷全球行政法的演變、形貌與影響》。臺灣大學法律學院博士論文。
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曾燕倫(2012)。《共同但差別責任原則的再建構:後京都時代全球氣候治理的革新》。國立臺灣大學法律學研究所碩士論文。
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葉俊榮(2015)。《氣候變遷治理與法律》。臺北,臺大出版中心。
葉俊榮,姜皇池,張文貞編(2010)。《國際環境法:條約選集與解說》。臺北:新學林。
劉明德,徐玉珍(2011)。〈地方政府跨域合作模式與案例分析—台灣與德國之比較〉,《公共行政學報》,第41期,頁37-72。
盧鏡臣,周素卿,廖昱凱(2015),〈落差與接軌?從國際發展看台灣的都市氣候治理與研究〉,《都市與計劃》,第四十二卷第一期,頁7-38。

二、英文:
專書與期刊
Pierre, J., & Peters, G. B.(2000). Governance , politics and the state. Lodon: Palgrave Macmillan.
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Blank, Y. (2009). Federalism, subsidiarity, and the role of local governments in an age of global multilevel governance, Fordham Urban. Law Journal, 37, 509-558.
Blank, Y. (2010). Federalism, subsidiarity, and the role of local governments in an age of global multilevel governance. Fordham Urb. LJ, 37, 509.
Broto, V. C., & Bulkeley, H., A Survey Of Urban Climate Change Experiments In 100 Cities. Global Environmental Change, 23(1), 92-102 (2013).
Bulkeley, H. (2010). Cities and the governing of climate change. Annual Review of Environment and Resources , 35, 229-53.
Campbell, T. (2009). Learning cities: Knowledge, capacity and competitiveness. Habitat International, 33(2), 195-201.
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Giest, S., & Howlett, M. (2013). Comparative climate change governance: lessons from European transnational municipal network management efforts.Environmental Policy and Governance, 23(6), 341-353.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2013). Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. WORKING GROUP I CONTRIBUTION TO THE FIFTH ASSESSMENT REPORT OF THE INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
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Kern, K., & Bulkeley, H. (2009). Cities, Europeanization and Multi‐level Governance: Governing Climate Change through Transnational Municipal Networks*. JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies, 47(2), 309-332.
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Peters, B. G., & Pierre, J. (2001). Developments in intergovernmental relations: towards multi-level governance. Policy and Politics, 29(2), 131-136.
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網路資源與其他
C40.(2014) Climate Action in Megacities Version 2.0.
C40.(2015). C40 fact sheet: Why cities? Retrieved from https://www.humphreyfellowship.org/system/files/Fact_Sheet_C40_Cities_Climate_Leadership_Group_07.26.13.pdf.
C40.(2015). Powering Climate Action: Cities as Global Changemakers. Retrieved from http://www.c40.org/blog_posts/new-research-from-c40-and-arup-shows-how-city-governments-are-changing-the-world.
carbonn Climate Registry, http://carbonn.org/
CityNet, http://citynet-ap.org.
Clean Air Asia, cleanairasia.org
Climate Alliance, http://www.klimabuendnis.org.
Climate Change 2014, Working Group II Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
Clinton Foundation, https://www.clintonfoundation.org/
Compact Of Mayors, http://www.compactofmayors.org.
Corfee-Morlot, J., Kamal-Chaoui, L., Donovan, M. G., Cochran, I., Robert, A., and Teasdale, P. J. (2009). Cities, Climate Change and Multilevel Governance, Paris: OECD.
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Fenton, P. D. (2014). The role of port cities and networks: reflections on the World Ports Climate Initiative. In Shipping in Changing Climates: provisioning the future.
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WCI, http://www.wci-inc.org/
WMCCC, http://www.worldmayorscouncil.org

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