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研究生:姜慶萱
研究生(外文):Ching-Shiuan Jiang
論文名稱:亞洲開發銀行中的非正式治理
論文名稱(外文):Informal Governance in The Asian Development Bank
指導教授:童涵浦童涵浦引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hans Hanpu Tung
口試委員:左正東張文揚
口試委員(外文):Chen-Dong TsoWen-Yang Chang
口試日期:2014-07-22
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:政治學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:政治學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:105
中文關鍵詞:亞洲開發銀行治理非正式影響力權力制度援助者利益
外文關鍵詞:Asian Development Bankgovernanceinformal influencepowerinstitutiondonor interest
相關次數:
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  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
在國際經濟秩序劇變的時代,亞洲開發銀行等國際組織首先面對發展中國家崛起的挑戰,凸顯出既有國際開發機構的治理問題。國際組織是否獨立於大國權力而存在向來是國際關係學界爭辯的問題,其中多邊發展機構是否受到援助國利益的介入更可能影響援助有效性,然而即使許多研究證實國際開發機構受美國、日本等主要援助國的自身利益影響,這些國際組織的決策機制與治理模式始終是模糊的。開發銀行的決策是如何產生?既有強國如何影響組織的決策?影響的程度有多大?本文欲以亞洲開發銀行為研究對象,探究這些治理問題。
在本文中,我們透過非正式治理理論探討美國與日本兩個強國如何影響亞銀的決策。透過訪談與文獻分析亞銀的決策過程後,我們發現強國透過董事會中的正式投票權發揮的影響力是有限的,然而制度設計卻隱含了強國透過非正式管道發揮影響力的可能性,亞銀的資金來源與人事任用反映了非正式影響力的大小。量化檢證的結果進一步確認了美國、日本對亞銀貸款援助分配的普遍影響力。美、日兩國立場的一致性使亞銀管理層在資源分配方面獲得高度授權,保留了很大的非正式治理空間。
本文的研究回應了當前國際組織制度改革的呼聲,不僅是正式投票權的重分配,更須注意到非正式管道的制度化。非正式治理理論中,強國若不節制非正式影響力的使用就可能減損組織的正當性,這可能是當下亞洲新興多邊倡議方興未艾的原因。

In the era of rapidly changing international economic order, international organizations such as the Asian Development Bank (ADB) stand at the forefront of the challenge. The challenge that emerges from the rising importance of the BRICS reflects the leaning governance structure in favor of existing powers within the international financial institutions. International Relations theories have long debated whether international organizations are independent from the influence of powerful states. In the case of ADB, even though many researches have verified that donor interest is important, especially that of the U.S. and Japan, the real decision-making mechanism remains vague. How do development banks make decisions? How do existing powers influence the decisions of the banks, and to what extent? These questions are investigated here through studying the case of ADB.
In this thesis, the theory of informal governance is used to explore how Japan and the U.S. influence the decisions of ADB. After analyzing the decision making process of ADB, using interview and content analysis, it is found that the influence exerted by formal voting is indeed limited. Instead, informal channels are embedded in the institutional design as major means to influence the bank’s decisions, mainly through funds donation and personnel recruitment. The quantitative model further testifies the general influence of Japan and the U.S. in the distribution of resources in the ADB. The converging interest of these two countries results in a high level of delegation ownership by ADB officials, leaving sufficient space for informal influence.
This research responds to the current calls for institutional reform in international organizations. The thesis argues that to correct the leaning governance structure, not only formal voting rights require redistribution, but also decision-making channels need to be formalized. The theory of informal governance indicates that the overuse of informal influence will undermine the legitimacy of the organization, which could very well be the underlying cause of the new multilateral initiatives in Asia.

第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機與目的 1
第二節 研究架構 4
第二章 文獻回顧 5
第一節 國際組織與國家的關係 5
第二節 非正式治理 8
第三節 多邊援助機構中的非正式治理 14
第四節 亞洲開發銀行相關文獻 17
第五節 小結 20
第三章 研究假設與方法 23
第一節 研究假設 23
第二節 研究方法 24
第三節 研究限制 26
第四章 亞銀中的結構權力、正式制度與非正式影響力 29
第一節 結構權力 29
第二節 正式制度 31
第三節 非正式影響力 40
第四節 新興強權與亞銀制度化 57
第五節 小結 59
第五章 資料分析 61
第一節 依變項:亞銀貸款援助金額 61
第二節 自變項:強國利益指標 63
第三節 控制變項:受援國需求及良善治理指標 67
第四節 敘述統計 69
第五節 迴歸分析 71
第六章 結論 79
參考文獻 83
附件一:表格 97
附件二:訪談大綱 103

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