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研究生:黃忠偉
研究生(外文):Ching-Wei Huang
論文名稱:理性、儒家價值與個人福利需求:中國大陸案例的分析
論文名稱(外文):Rational Choice, Confucian Values and Welfare Demand: The Case of China
指導教授:張佑宗張佑宗引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yu-Tzung Chang
口試委員:徐斯勤吳親恩
口試委員(外文):S. Philip HsuChin-en Wu
口試日期:2015-04-23
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:政治學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:政治學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:77
中文關鍵詞:中國研究儒家價值福利國家社會公平重分配理性選擇
外文關鍵詞:China studyConfucian valuesWelfare stateSocial justiceRedistributionRational choice
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  改革開放30年以來,中國已經由一均貧的社會轉向小康,但「一部分人先富起來」的結果,卻使貧富不均與社會福利不足成為中國最主要的社會問題。除了由上而下「構建和諧社會」外,由下而上的福利需求也受到眾多注目。而過去,針對福利需求的社會政策偏好研究以理性選擇理論為基礎,建構個人福利需求的一般化模型,並提出以收入、職業風險等經濟稟賦為主要影響因素的理論。然而同時,過去學界多以「儒家福利體系」統括中國所在的東亞地區,認為東亞社會的儒家文化使執政者得以將福利供給的角色由政府轉向家庭,而減少其福利開支,亦即文化價值是決定該地區福利體系的重要因素,同時也包含了中國。

  然而上述兩個分別由總體與個體層次出發的理論,卻同時有其不足之處。若文化價值的確是影響福利體系的重要因素,那麼在個人層次,文化價值是否也將影響民眾的福利需求?另外,根據我們對儒家典籍的解讀,儒家價值的內涵似乎也並不與福利國家相互牴觸。因此,本文便是要補足上述的不足,在個人層次上檢驗文化價值對福利需求的影響,並假設儒家價值將加強,而非減低個人的福利需求。

  由本文的分析結果發現,儒家價值的確對中國民眾的福利需求產生正向的影響。而當將儒家價值區分為「家父長主義價值」、「社群主義價值」與「家庭主義價值」三構面時,則發現家父長主義與家庭主義為儒家文化中影響福利需求的主要因素。同時,經濟變數亦影響中國民眾的福利需求,符合既有研究基於理性選擇的假設。最後,社會經濟變數對福利需求的影響力展現了與西方相異的「中國特色」,其結果與中國30年改革開放的經驗與影響息息相關。

  本文確立了文化價值與福利需求之間的關聯,然而,從福利需求到福利供給,仍有許多影響的因素。另外,中國高速的社會轉型所帶來的文化變遷,也將使文化價值對福利需求的影響力產生改變,其改變的結果,與由需求到供給之間的連結,將是我們必須接續關心的目標。

  It has been thirty years since China start its economic reform and rapid development. However, with "some people become wealthy first", the issue of inequality and lack of welfare infrastructure turned into most social problem in modern China. Besides the "building harmonious society" propaganda, welfare demands from bottom also drew larger attention. Based on rational choice theory, scholars emphasize that personal economic endowment and related utility from welfare state determine demand to welfare state. Meanwhile, many scholars described welfare system in East Asia as "Confucius welfare state", and Confucian values had been deployed as reason for government ruler to keep low welfare supply. It means, culture values are determinant of welfare system in East Asia, including China.

  However, both theory has their theoretical vacancy. If culture really matters, then will they affect welfare demands in individual level? Also, from different interpretation to Confucian context, we found that Confucian values might possibly enhance welfare demand in individual level. This article provides different points of view that in China, Confucian values affect welfare demand individually and in positive way.

  The hypotheses above had been confirmed from our statistical analysis. First, Confucian values did affect welfare demand within Chinese people in positive way. Second, "paternalism" and "familism" aspects in confucian values are the main determinant to personal welfare demand. However, "communitarianism" aspect did not acheive statistical significant in our study. In the mean time, the significancy of economic variables confirmed that social policy preference theory is suitable for Chinese people. Influences of other variables showed the "Chinese characteristics", and the cause of the outcome is closely related to economic reform in the past thirty years.

  We confirmed the relationships between culture values and welfare demand in Chinese people. Nevertheless, there are many other factors in the causal chain from welfare demand to supply. The culture shift from fast transformation of China''s society may also affects Confucian value''s influence to welfare demand. The consequences of culture shift and the connection between demand and supply, are the most important features which deserve our focus.

口試委員會審定書 i
謝辭 iii
中文摘要 v
Abstract vii
目錄 ix
圖目錄 xiii
表目錄 xv
1 緒論 1
1.1研究背景.................................. 1
1.1.1 東亞與中國:福利革命與所得不均 ............... 1
1.1.2 中國:經濟發展與不平等 .................... 2
1.1.3 福利需求與文化價值:失落的拼圖 ............... 4
福利體系分類成因與轉型......................... 5
從東亞看中國:福利體系簡述...................... 7
1.3.1 中國福利體系簡述 ........................ 7
1.3.2 東亞福利體系探源 ........................ 9
1.3.3 東亞福利轉型:變革與挑戰 ................... 12
1.4研究資料與方法.............................. 13
1.5章節安排.................................. 13
2 理論與研究假設 17
2.1 福利偏好的一般化模型與影響因素 ................... 17
2.2 非經濟因素與福利需求.......................... 19
2.3 儒家價值中的福利國家.......................... 21
2.3.1 家父長制功績主義(Patertalistic meritocracy) . . . . . . . . . 21
2.3.2 社群主義(Communitarianism)................. 23
2.3.3 家庭主義(Familism) ...................... 24
2.4 研究假設.................................. 25
3 研究設計 27
3.1 研究資料與分析單位 ........................... 27
3.2 變項說明.................................. 27
3.3 研究模型與統計方法 ........................... 30
4 實證分析 31
4.1 敘述統計.................................. 31
4.2 儒家價值的因素分析 ........................... 33
4.3 單變數關係................................. 34
4.4 福利需求的邏輯斯迴歸分析 ....................... 35
4.5 福利需求的多層次邏輯斯迴歸分析 ................... 41
5 結果與討論 49
5.1 經濟與非經濟因素............................. 49
5.2 儒家價值的影響.............................. 55
5.3 小結..................................... 58
6 結論:文化遺緒與福利國家 59
6.1 自個人到國家:福利轉型的關鍵..................... 59
6.2 儒家價值與現代價值 ........................... 61
6.3 研究限制與未來展望 ........................... 63
A 附錄 65
A.1 序位邏輯斯迴歸分析(ordered logistic regression model) . . . . . . . 65
A.1.1 分析結果.............................. 65
A.1.2 討論 ................................ 69
A.2變項說明.................................. 70
A.3 迴歸模型的變項訊息 ........................... 72
參考文獻..................................... 73

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