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研究生:莫振凡
研究生(外文):Brendan Morrell
論文名稱:中國的貧富差距與社會動盪:理性唯物主義與社會心理學之分析
論文名稱(外文):Inequality and Civil Unrest in China: An Investigation of Rational-Materialist and Socio-Cognitive Approaches
指導教授:陶儀芬陶儀芬引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yi-Feng Tao
口試委員:林宗弘陳明祺
口試委員(外文):Thung-Hong Lin
口試日期:2015-07-30
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:政治學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:政治學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:英文
論文頁數:206
中文關鍵詞:中國貧富差距分配衝突理論相對剝奪理論
外文關鍵詞:ChinaInequalityDistributive ConflictRelative Deprivation
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本文探究中國貧富差距增大之現象對社會不穩定的影響,主要以兩個理論切入:理性唯物主義(分配衝突理論)與社會心理學(相對剝奪理論)。結果顯示中國的實際貧富不均相當嚴重、制度化,也是社會不穩定的重要來源之一。然而,這個關係需要透過若干認知過程,特別是相對社會比較,才產生影響。中國貧富差距的結構限制上層階級與下層階級之間的互動與比較,從而降低貧富不均所造成的社會動盪。

This thesis examines the relationship between rising inequality and social unrest in China. This relationship is approached from two theoretical angles: rational-materialist (distributive conflict theory), and socio-cognitive (relative- deprivation). The results show that objective inequality is highly institutionalized in China, and is indeed an important cause of social unrest in China. However, the strength of this connection is mediated by cognitive processes, particularly that of relative social comparison. The structure of inequality in China has limited social comparison between the advantaged and the disadvantaged, thereby minimizing inequality-induced social unrest.

Table Of Contents
1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Question 1
1.2 Background 3
1.3 Research Design And Significance 7
1.4 Organization 11
2 RATIONAL-MATERIALIST ACCOUNTS 12
2.1 Introduction 12
2.2 Theoretical Context of Distributive conflict theory 14
2.2.1 The Structural Approach 15
2.2.2 The Strategic Approach (Top-Down Democratization) 17
2.2.3 The Social-Forces Approach (Bottom-Up Democratization) 19
2.2.4 The Economic Approach 20
2.3 Distributive conflict theory 21
2.3.1 Basic Tenets of Distributive conflict theory 21
2.3.2 Boix 24
2.3.3 Acemoglu & Robinson 26
2.3.4 Ansell And Samuels: Contractarian Approach 29
2.3.5 Freeman And Quinn 31
2.3.6 Empirical Evaluation of Distributive conflict theory 33
2.3.7 Theoretical Evaluation 39
2.4 The Problem of Collective Action 46
2.4.1 Collective Action Within distributive conflict theory 47
2.5 Conclusion 61
3 COGNITIVE APPROACHES 61
3.1 Introduction 61
3.2 Historical Beginnings of Relative deprivation Theory 64
3.2.1 Theoretical Framework and Causal Mechanism 68
3.2.2 Types of Relative-Deprivation 75
3.3 Empirical Evidence and Theoretical Evaluation 82
3.3.1 Empirical Evidence 82
3.3.2 Possible Explanations for Conflicting Results 86
3.3.3 Conclusion 91
4 STRUCTURE OF INEQUALITY 91
4.1 Introduction 91
4.2 Brief History 92
4.3 Causes Of Inequality in China 98
4.3.1 Urban-Rural Inequality 100
4.3.2 Inland-Coastal Inequality 104
4.3.3 Confounding Factors and Cyclical Interactions Within an Incomplete Market 107
4.4 Recent Measures To Address Inequality 119
4.4.1 Redistribution of Primary Income 120
4.4.2 Primary Income Generation Process 127
4.5 Conclusion 133
5 INEQUALITY AND CIVIL UNREST IN CHINA 134
5.1 Introduction 134
5.2 Does Inequality Causes Social Unrest In China? An Evaluation of the Rational-Material and Cognitive Approaches 135
5.3 Whither Distributive Conflict? Evidence From Whyte 140
5.3.1 Results Of The Surveys 141
5.3.2 Why No Volcano? Two Explanations: 148
5.4 Subjective Social Patterns In China: Explaining Easterlin And Whyte 151
5.4.1 Social Comparison in China 153
5.4.2 Socio-Temporal Comparison 157
5.4.3 Temporal Comparison in China 159
5.4.4 Summary Of Relative Deprivation In China 160
6 STATISTICAL ANALYSIS 163
6.1 Variable Explanation and Justification 167
6.1.1 Level of Analysis: 167
6.1.2 Dependent Variable 168
6.1.3 Independent Variable 169
6.1.4 Intervening Variables: Reference Group Processes and Temporal Comparison 171
6.1.5 Control Variables 174
6.2 RESULTS 175
6.2.1 Initial Analysis: Inequality in Isolation 180
6.2.2 Revised Model: Addition of Reference Group Processes 180
6.2.3 Accounting for Temporal Comparison 182
6.3 DISCUSSION 183
7 CONCLUSION 186


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