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研究生:張耀邦
研究生(外文):Yaopang Chang
論文名稱:李蓋悌(György Ligeti)的作品《Artikulation》中張力變化之過程
論文名稱(外文):The Ebb and Flow of Tension in György Ligeti’s Artikulation
指導教授:王育雯王育雯引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yuhwen Wang
口試委員:蕭慶瑜潘世姬
口試日期:2015-07-29
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:音樂學研究所
學門:藝術學門
學類:音樂學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:100
中文關鍵詞:李蓋悌《Artikulation》樂曲分析音樂中的張力頻譜分析
外文關鍵詞:György LigetiArtikulationmusical analysistension in musicspectral analysis
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  李蓋悌(György Ligeti, 1923–2006)的早期電子音樂作品《Artikulation》(1958)係以各種電子聲響作為材料創作而成的磁帶音樂,儘管樂曲聽起來猶如一連串喋喋不休、毫無規則可言的噪音,但卻仍能令人感到合理、富有秩序而不致枯燥乏味,甚至能察覺樂曲中的張力變化。
  探究其主要原因,乃作曲家所設計之「人造對話」使然,以及樂曲當中確實存在著張力變化的過程,因而使聽者能夠以過去所建立的聽覺經驗來欣賞此曲。
  本論文將針對樂曲中的張力,對Artikulation一曲進行音樂分析。唯此曲係電子音樂作品,不但缺乏樂譜,曲中大多數的聲音亦難以判斷音高與其它音樂要素,除了無法適用調性音樂的分析方法外,甚至亦無法適用非調性音樂的分析方法。因此,本論文將從聽覺經驗出發,輔以頻譜圖、聲波圖,以及觀察樂曲中若干可量化之參數,探究其張力變化的過程。

The early electroacoustic work of György Ligeti, Artikulation (1958), is a tape music which was composed with various of electronic sounds as its basic elements. Although the piece sounds like a series of rattling sound and unorganized noises, it is somehow reasonable and has brought a sense of order whilst audiences could hardly feel tedious. Furthermore, audiences would have a consciousness of the tension in the music, which was conveyed through ebbs and flows.
The reasons of the existence of the consciousness are, the composer has implemented the “artificial conversation”, moreover the variational process of tension in the music indeed. Therefore, audiences could understand the piece based on their former listening experiences.
The research will focus on the tension of Artikulation by musical analysis. Since the piece is an electroacoustic work without musical notation and most of the pitches or other musical elements were illegible, it is impracticable to neither apply the methods of analyzing tonal nor atonal music. Therefore, in this research, the approach of musical analyzing will be based on listening experiences along with interpreting the spectrogram and waveform graph of the piece, with observing several parameters which could be quantified, aims at investigating the variational process of the tension in the piece.

第一章 緒論⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯01
第一節 背景與研究動機⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯01
第二節 文獻回顧⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯04
第三節 研究對象與範圍、研究工具⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯10
第四節 分析的限制與困難⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯11
第五節 研究方法⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯13

第二章 Artikulation的結構⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯15
第一節 樂曲的結構與分段⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯16
第二節 反覆、模進、逆行、倒影⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯20
第三節 本論文所談的張力⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯25

第三章 Artikulation的聲響材料⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯29
第一節 聲響材料分類⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯30
第二節 噪聲⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯35
第三節 類金屬聲⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯44
第四節 頻率音⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯49
第五節 小結⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯67

第四章 Artikulation的張力建構過程⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯69
第一節 聲響密集程度與音量變化⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯70
第二節 殘響程度⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯74
第三節 聲響材料之分布⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯75
第四節 聲道轉換頻率與聲道密度⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯81
第五節 聽覺樂譜所呈現的張力⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯84

第五章 結論:張力的整體分布與整合⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯87
附錄:李蓋悌的若干Artikulation手稿片段 ⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯93
參考文獻 ⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯96


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■網路資料
Craig, Donald. “Ligeti – Artikulation.” YouTube Online video clip. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=71hNl_skTZQ (accessed July 2015).

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