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研究生:孟偉安
研究生(外文):Vigan Mensah
論文名稱:呂宋海峽到台灣東部海域黑潮水團演化之動力過程研究
論文名稱(外文):Evolution of the water masses associated with the Kuroshio from the Luzon Strait to the east of Taiwan
指導教授:詹森詹森引用關係
指導教授(外文):Sen Jan
口試委員:曾若玄陳仲吉周文臣陳慶生王冑
口試委員(外文):Ruo-Shan TsengChung-Chi ChenWen-Chen ChouChing-Sheng ChernJoe Wang
口試日期:2015-07-08
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:海洋研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:海洋科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:英文
論文頁數:105
中文關鍵詞:黑潮水團流量變動混合平流
外文關鍵詞:KuroshioWater massesTransportVariabilityMixingAdvection
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The variability of the water masses associated with the Kuroshio are analyzed through three separate studies: (1) The spatial variations of the Kuroshio Tropical Water (KTW) from the Luzon Strait to the east of Taiwan is studied from climatology data; (2) the temporal variability of the intermediate water (IW) east of Taiwan is elucidated through the use of two years of salinity minimum time series; (3) hydrographic and current velocity data collected from 9 surveys east of Taiwan are used to supplement the results from the previous two studies.
The first study examines the evolution of KTW from the Luzon Strait to the I-Lan Ridge northeast of Taiwan. Historical conductivity temperature depth (CTD) profiles are analyzed based on root mean square (rms) difference of the salinity along isopycnals. This analysis enables water masses in the Kuroshio and the vicinity, as well as their interactions, to be tracked and distinguished. Vertical and horizontal eddy diffusivities are then calculated from hydrographic and current velocity data to elucidate the dynamics underlying the KTW interactions with the surrounding water masses. Changes in KTW properties mainly occur in the southern half of the Luzon Strait, while moderate variations are observed east of Taiwan on the eastern flank of the Kuroshio. A front separating the KTW from the South China Sea Tropical Water (SCSTW) on the Kuroshio western side, is observed east of Taiwan. The estimated horizontal eddy diffusivity is high (Kh~102 m2 s-1) all along the Kuroshio path, due to the high lateral current shear along the Kuroshio flanks. The vertical diffusivity is the dominant factor responsible for the modification of KTW in the Luzon Strait and approaches 10-3 m2 s-1, with the highest value in the southern Luzon Strait.
The variability of the IW east of Luzon and Taiwan is investigated using data acquired from moored instrumented lines and shipboard hydrographic and current velocity surveys. The IW is defined as the water mass with a local salinity minimum along the Kuroshio path. An empirical formula is deduced to estimate the IW salinity minimum east of Taiwan using temperature measurements around 580 m depth. The properties of the IW east of Taiwan vary greatly as a result of variable contributions from three water masses including the high salinity South China Sea Intermediate Water (SCSIW), the low salinity minimum North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW), and the mid-range Kuroshio Intermediate Water (KIW). Our analysis concludes that NPIW is predominantly found east of Taiwan and the northward transport of KIW from east of Luzon to east of Taiwan is not a steady process. Concurrent mooring and Pressure-sensor equipped Inverted Echo Sounder (PIES) measurements east of Luzon and Taiwan allow us to correlate the variations of the layer thickness of the Kuroshio near its origin (KLTo) east of Luzon to the nature of the IW east of Taiwan. Variations of KLTo are linked to the mesoscale eddies impinging on the Kuroshio, from the analysis of PIES data. When the Kuroshio is deep (large KLTo) KIW is transported northward across the Luzon Strait, where the KIW salinity increases presumably due to turbulence mixing, and to the east of Taiwan. When the Kuroshio is shallow (small KLTo) the KIW transport east of Luzon is diminished or southward. East of Taiwan, NPIW feeds in below the Kuroshio and is transported northward beyond the I-Lan Ridge.
To further document the variability of the tropical and intermediate waters, we use the results from 9 cruises along the KTV1 line east of Taiwan, together with satellite sea surface height data. The investigation reveals that the flow of South China Sea Tropical Water (SCSTW) to the west of Kuroshio is not permanent, and the offshore shift of the Kuroshio axis strongly impacts the flow and characteristics of the water masses found in the region.


List of Figures...........................................................................................................................v
List of Tables...........................................................................................................................xi
Chapter 1 Introduction......................................................................................................................1
Chapter 2 Data and Methodology...........................................................................................7
2.1 Tropical Water............................................................................................................................8
2.1.1 Datasets................................................................................................................................8
2.1.2 Water mass analysis..........................................................................................................10
2.1.3 Definition of water masses and reference θ-S curves.....................................................12
2.2 Intermediate Water..................................................................................................................16
2.2.1 Hydrographic and current velocity surveys...................................................................17
2.2.2 Synthetic Smin time series..................................................................................................19
2.2.3 Impact of the variability of the Kuroshio origin on water masses east of Taiwan......28
2.3 Impact of the local circulation east of Taiwan on Kuroshio water masses
2.3.1 Surveys and satellite sea surface height .........................................................................33
Chapter 3 Evolution of the tropical waters................................................................................34
3.1 Root mean square analysis.......................................................................................................34
3.2 Seasonal patterns of tropical waters........................................................................................42
3.3 Eddy diffusivity of the tropical water.....................................................................................44
3.3.1 Estimate of diffusivities.....................................................................................................45
3.3.2 Horizontal diffusivities......................................................................................................48
3.3.3 Vertical diffusivities..........................................................................................................51
3.4 Summary....................................................................................................................................55
Chapter 4 Variability of the intermediate waters.....................................................................58
4.1 Time series analysis...................................................................................................................58
4.2 Qualitative analysis of the intermediate water volume transport........................................60
4.3 The relationship between Kuroshio thickness and the intermediate water.........................65
4.3.1 The notion of Kuroshio layer thickness..........................................................................65
4.3.2 Variations of the KLT and its impact on the intermediate water flow........................70
4.3.3 Local impact of SSHa systems interacting with the Kuroshio east of Taiwan.........................................................................................................................................73
4.3.4 Remote impact of eddies impinging on the Kuroshio east of Luzon............................75
4.3.5 Seasonal variability of the intermediate water circulation...........................................79
4.4 Summary....................................................................................................................................81
Chapter 5 Effects of large scale and mesoscale circulation on the Kuroshio water masses..................................................................................................................................................84
5.1Impact of local circulation east of Taiwan on Kuroshio water masses.................................84
5.1.1 On the permanence of a northward flow of SCSTW east of Taiwan...........................85
5.1.2 High frequency (< intraseasonal) variability of the tropical waters across the Kuroshio front............................................................................................................................89
5.1.3 Circulation of the intermediate water in the vicinity of the I-Lan ridge.....................92
Chapter 6 Conclusion and suggestions........................................................................................94
References...........................................................................................................................................99



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