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研究生:謝政哲
研究生(外文):Cheng-Jer Hsieh
論文名稱:畜牧業廢棄污泥產製生質柴油之技術研究
論文名稱(外文):Research on Biodiesel Production from Waste Sludge of Livestock Industry
指導教授:蘇忠楨蘇忠楨引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jung-Jeng Su
口試委員:郭猛德周楚洋徐世勳
口試日期:2015-06-12
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:動物科學技術學研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:畜牧學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:75
中文關鍵詞:廢棄污泥生質柴油脂肪酸甲酯轉酯化凍乾
外文關鍵詞:Waste sludgeBiodieselFAMETransesterificationFreeze-dried
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剩餘或廢棄污泥的處理成本約佔總廢水處理成本的20到50%。生活污水污泥可作為轉製生質柴油之料源。生質柴油即脂肪酸甲酯,屬於再生能源。本研究之目的為藉由生產生質柴油嘗試解決畜牧業過剩污泥的問題,並且評估使用畜牧業廢棄污泥 (包括養豬場、養牛場及屠宰場) 生產生質柴油可行性。本研究使用三種畜牧業廢棄污泥,藉由酸催化轉酯化以生產脂肪酸甲酯。廢棄污泥以凍乾方式脫水後,再與甲醇反應並產生脂肪酸甲酯。本研究試驗組分成四種反應時間 (4、8、16或24小時) 以及四種甲醇添加量 (10:1、15:1、25:1或40:1) ,以氣相層析檢測各試驗組條件對脂肪酸甲酯生產量和成分差異。屠宰場污泥、養豬場污泥及養牛場污泥的脂肪酸甲酯產量約分別為0.78~2.24、0.14~0.35及1.41~2.18% (w/w)。本研究亦評估烘乾污泥 (105℃,12小時) 和凍乾污泥,在不同反應時間 (4和24小時) 但其他反應條件相同之脂肪酸甲酯產量差異。實驗結果顯示,在4小時試驗組的脂肪酸甲酯產量有顯著差異,但是24小時的試驗組卻無顯著差異。此外,以超音波進行10分鐘的破碎處理與未前處理組比較,在不同反應時間 (2和4小時) 但相同反應條件下的脂肪酸甲酯產量差異。實驗結果顯示兩種試驗組之結果皆無顯著差異。從脂肪酸甲酯組成分析結果得知,無論是反應時間、甲醇添加量、污泥脫水方式或有無破碎處理,皆對脂肪酸甲酯的種類和組成無影響,但是會受原料污泥的種類影響。從畜牧業廢棄污泥生產的脂肪酸甲酯,其主要種類為C15/C17/C18酸甲酯類等。生產生質柴油可以成為處理畜牧業廢棄污泥的另一種選擇,並且能夠從畜牧業廢棄污泥中回收可使用之資源。

The cost of treating excess or waste sludge is about 20~50% of total wastewater treatment. Sewage sludge can be the feedstock of producing biodiesel, and it is fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and a kind of renewable energy. The target of study is try to solve problem of excess livestock sludge by producing biodiesel and evaluates its feasibility by using waste livestock sludge including swine farm, dairy cattle farm and slaughterhouse sludge. These waste livestock sludge were used and produced FAME by acid-catalyst transesterification in this study. The waste sludge was de-watered by freeze-dried way and reacted with methanol to produce FAME. The test conditions were divided into four kinds of reaction time (4, 8, 16, and 24 h) with different ratios of methanol addition (10:1, 15:1, 25:1, and 40:1). All FAME yield and species were analyzed by gas chromatography. The FAME yield of slaughterhouse sludge, swine farm sludge, and cattle farm sludge was about 0.78~2.24, 0.14~0.35, and 1.41~2.18% (w/w), respectively. The oven-dried way (105℃, 12 h) was used and compared the yield with freeze-dried way under different reaction time (4 and 24 h) but other conditions were the same. The result showed there was significant difference in 4-h sets but no significant in 24-h sets. Compared with 10-min treatment by ultrasonic and non-treatment under different reaction time (2 and 4 h) but other conditions were the same. The result showed there was significant difference in 2-h or 4-h sets. The results showed reaction time, methanol addition, de-watering way, and treatment by ultrasonic had no effect on FAME composition but species of sludge would do. The dominant FAME species from livestock sludge is C15/C17/C18. Biodiesel production can be an alternative way to treat livestock waste sludge and recover resource from it.

謝誌…………………………………………………………………………………Ⅰ
摘要……………………………………………………………………………………Ⅱ
Abstract………………………………………………………………………………Ⅲ
圖目錄…………………………………………………………………………………Ⅶ
表目錄…………………………………………………………………………………Ⅸ
第壹章、文獻回顧……………………………………………………………………1
一、畜牧產業之廢水處理與污泥…………………………………………………1
(一) 臺灣畜牧業廢水處理之相關法規…………………………………………1
(二) 常見之畜牧業處理廢水方式………………………………………………2
(三) 三段式廢水處理系統中的污泥……………………………………………4
(四) 畜牧業污泥之處理困境與現況應對方式…………………………………5
(五) 污泥之轉製生質柴油/生質原油相關研究:生活污水處理廠污泥………10
二、生質柴油…………………………………………………………………13
(一) 生質柴油基本介紹………………………………………………………13
1. 生質柴油的定義…………………………………………………………13
2. 生質柴油的形成…………………………………………………………13
3. 生質柴油的來源種類……………………………………………………14
4. 生質柴油的優點…………………………………………………………15
(二) 生質柴油之標準規範……………………………………………………16
(三) 生質柴油之使用和生產狀況……………………………………………17
(四) 廢棄污泥生質柴油之介紹………………………………………………19
三、研究動機和目的………………………………………………………………21
第貳章、材料與方法…………………………………………………………………22
一、污泥原料之收集和預處理………………………………………………22
二、轉酯化反應之材料與方法……………………………………………………23
三、試驗設計………………………………………………………………………25
(一) 凍乾污泥之直接轉酯化試驗…………………………………………25
(二) 烘乾污泥之直接轉酯化試驗……………………………………………26
(三) 超音波進行處理再行轉酯化之試驗…………………………………26
四、分析檢測方法與統計…………………………………………………………28
(一) 脂肪酸甲酯含量之分析…………………………………………………28
(二) 揮發性脂肪酸含量之分析………………………………………………30
(三) 化學需氧量之檢測………………………………………………………31
(四) 生化需氧量之檢測……………………………………………………32
(五) 水中總固形物之檢測……………………………………………………34
(六) 統計分析…………………………………………………………………35
第參章、結果與討論…………………………………………………………………36
一、凍乾污泥之轉酯化產製生質柴油試驗………………………………………36
(一) 屠宰場污泥轉酯化試驗結果…………………………………………..….36
(二) 養豬場污泥轉酯化試驗結果…………………………..……………….…42
(三) 養牛場污泥轉酯化試驗結果…………………………………..……….....47
二、烘乾污泥轉酯化製生質柴油試驗……………………………………...…..…..52
三、超音波處理凍乾污泥之轉酯化製生質柴油試驗……………………………...54
四、本次研究結果與生活污水污泥相關文獻結果之比較…………………...……56
五、從甲醇使用量和污泥水分含量方面評估和討論生質柴油生產成本影響...…60
六、污泥離心後之上層液分析結果和養牛場污泥之總固形物分析.......................64
第肆章、結論與未來研究方向…………………………………………………….…..66
第伍章、參考文獻……………………………………………………………………...67
附錄…………………………………………………………………………………….71


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