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研究生:劉桓嘉
研究生(外文):Huan-Chia Liu
論文名稱:相位式線陣列超音波換能器幾何參數對聲場之影響
論文名稱(外文):The influence of element arrangements on the sound field of linear phased array ultrasound transducers
指導教授:宋家驥宋家驥引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chia-Chi Sung
口試委員:謝傳璋楊旭光羅如燕
口試委員(外文):chuan-chang hsiehhsu-kuang yangju-yan luo
口試日期:2015-06-30
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:工程科學及海洋工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:綜合工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:97
中文關鍵詞:壓電式超音波換能器線陣列指向性聲場
外文關鍵詞:piezoelectric ultrasonic transducerlinear arraydirectivitysound field
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超音波量測系統在水利及海洋工程、非破壞檢測、醫療等領域應用已行之有年。其中超音波換能器又是系統中的重要元件之一。換能器,顧名思義即是將不同形式的能量彼此轉換,例如壓磁換能器、壓電換能器等。超音波換能器屬於壓電換能器,在進行分析時常需要機械與電子電路相關知識才能完整描述,因此國內外有許多領域的學者根據各式各樣的模擬方法,結合不同的模擬軟體或演算法,建立能夠表示真實系統的模型,如此一來能省去試誤法所需支出的成本。除了模擬方法以外,聲學材料的實際製造、選擇也深深影響著成品設計的優劣。而單一個換能器所能夠的輻射出的聲波能量有限,因此不管在醫療上或是工程上的應用會朝向以陣列式的方式,使聲束能夠達到最佳的建設性干涉以達到能量較集中的目的。
本研究透過模擬以探討不同幾何參數對於相位式線陣列超音波換能器的聲場之影響,探討的參數包括:陣元間距、陣元寬度、陣元長度以及陣元個數。本研究在實驗室中自行製造超音波換能器,並將數個陣元組合成一維線陣列的形式,利用一發一收系統實際量測換能器的指向性,找出陣列超音波換能器的指向性趨勢。並藉由模擬的方式將實驗的結果作比較與驗證並證明其可行性。研究中也歸納出了相位式線陣列設計的最佳規格,希望能提供未來其相關設計一些參考。


Ultrasonic measurement has been used for ocean engineering, noninvasive medical application, and nondestructive testing for years. Ultrasound transducer plays a significant role in whole system. Ultrasonic transducer is piezoelectric transducer, it takes a wide range of relevant knowledge to fully describe it when conducting analyzes; therefore, there are many areas of domestic and foreign scholars, integrating a wide range of simulation methods, simulation software, or a combination of different algorithms to establish model that can represent the real system in order to reduce the costs of trial and error. In addition to the simulation, the actual manufacture and selection of acoustic material also deeply affect the merits of the finished design. However, the energy emitted from single ultrasound transducer is too small, so the array type of the ultrasound transducers is considered no matter in medical or engineering, hope that sound beam can achieve the best constructive interference in order to achieve the purpose of energy which is more concentrated.
The research discuss different parameters which have impact on the sound field of linear phased array through simulation, the parameters including:element spacing, element width, element length, element numbers. The research fabricate ultrasound transducers to form a linear array, using a pairs of transducers to measure the directivity of it and figure out the directivity tendency of linear phased array. The results between experiment and simulation are compared to prove the feasibility of the
study. Besides, the design of the linear phased array transducers is explored in this research. Hope to provide some reference for future work.


誌謝 I
中文摘要 II
ABSTRACT III
目錄 IV
圖目錄 VII
表目錄 XIII
附錄 XIV
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究目的與動機 1
1.2 文獻回顧 2
1.3 論文架構介紹 4
第二章 理論基礎 5
2.1 超音波理論 5
2.1.1 聲波方程式 6
2.1.2 水中聲速 8
2.1.3 介質的聲阻抗 8
2.2 壓電原理 10
2.2.1 壓電效應 10
2.2.2 壓電方程式 11
2.2.3 壓電材料 13
2.2.4 壓電材料參數 15
2.3 超音波換能器結構 16
2.3.1 壓電陶瓷片 17
2.3.2 背膠層 18
2.3.3 匹配層 19
2.4 超音波換能器靈敏度 20
2.5 超音波換能器聲場 22
第三章 模擬理論 24
3.1 陣列式換能器概述 24
3.2 相位式線陣列超音波換能器的指向性 24
3.3 指向性函數 25
3.3.1 指向性圖 27
3.3.2 圓形活塞的輻射聲場 29
3.3.3 矩形活塞的輻射聲場 34
3.3.4 相位式線陣列的輻射聲場 36
3.4 相位式線陣列換能器各幾何參數之影響 42
3.4.1 各參數對於指向性的影響 42
3.4.2 陣列聚焦 48
3.4.3 時間延遲(time-delay)的推導 50
第四章 實驗架構與量測方法 52
4.1 實驗設備 52
4.2 超音波換能器製作流程 56
4.3 超音波換能器聲學特性量測架構 58
4.4 超音波換能器指向性量測架構 59
4.5 相位式線陣列超音波換能器指向性量測架構 61
第五章 結果與討論 63
5.1 不同結構超音波換能器的實驗與模擬比較 63
5.1.1 超音波換能器的聲學特性量測 63
5.1.2 矩形與圓形活塞換能器的指向性 66
5.2 相位式線陣列超音波換能器的實驗與模擬比較 75
第六章 結論與未來展望 86
6.1 結論 86
6.2 未來展望 87
參考文獻 88
附錄 91


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