跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.235.227.117) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/08/01 23:29
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:趙容
研究生(外文):Jung Chao
論文名稱:以玉山重複調查及公民科學資料探討臺灣繁殖鳥類海拔分布變遷
論文名稱(外文):Applying Resurvey Methods and Citizen Science Data to Investigate Dynamic of Altitudinal Distribution of Breeding Birds in Taiwan
指導教授:丁宗蘇丁宗蘇引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tzung-Su Ding
口試委員:許富雄陳一菁蔡若詩
口試日期:2015-06-12
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:森林環境暨資源學研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:林業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:111
中文關鍵詞:全球暖化海拔變遷繁殖鳥類公民科學臺灣
外文關鍵詞:global warmingelevation range shiftsbreeding birdscitizen scienceTaiwan
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:344
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
在全球暖化的趨勢下,許多研究顯示生物會往高緯度或高海拔的方向移動,然並非所有的研究結果皆是如此。臺灣為一高山林立的海島,海拔高度涵跨範圍大,相當適合偵測生物於全球暖化下的海拔分布變遷。惟長時間的生物分布資料十分稀少,故除了系統性調查資料外,本研究亦同時彙整分析非系統性調查資料。系統性調查資料的部分,係透過比對1992年及2014年的玉山現地調查資料,以瞭解臺灣高山繁殖鳥類的海拔分布變遷;而非系統性調查資料的部分,則是分析中華民國野鳥學會鳥類紀錄資料庫1972年至2010年間的紀錄報告,以全面偵測臺灣繁殖鳥類海拔分布之可能歷史趨勢。玉山現地調查於二調查年共記錄到62鳥種,並依據於不同海拔高度之調查樣站所記錄到的族群密度,計算出各鳥種於二調查年的海拔分布加權平均值。分析結果顯示玉山整體鳥類的海拔分布於22年間有顯著差異,平均上升60 m。而非系統性調查資料之分析,則於剔除努力量不足及海拔範圍涵跨過大之紀錄報告後,依記錄地點劃分至以500 m為間隔的海拔帶,並分別採用廣義線性模式來檢測各鳥種於各年份、各海拔帶的出現比率之變化,以瞭解其海拔分布變遷。124種繁殖鳥類依據檢測結果及本研究定義,其中8種分布上升,19種分布下降,28種增加,57種減少,9種無顯著改變,3種則為其他類型。部分鳥種檢測結果與相關報告或賞鳥者經驗感受相符,例如:臺灣夜鷹、黑翅鳶及黑冠麻鷺為整體增加,山麻雀及八哥為整體減少。與非系統性調查資料相比,玉山現地調查資料之分析結果較為可信,且較能真實反映當地鳥類的海拔分布變遷情形。非系統性調查資料之分析結果則容易受到資料結構的影響,包括資料來源的地域性差異及使用者的組成等,而造成檢測結果並非完全可信。然而,在缺乏系統性調查資料的情況下,透過分析長期且大量的非系統性調查資料所得之結果,可提供值得關注的預警訊息,以及未來可詳細探討與調查的候選對象。

Under current trend of global warming, many but not all studies have shown that species shift their distribution ranges poleward and upward. Taiwan is a mountainous island with wide elevation range that is suitable to examine the elevation range shifts of species. Owing to limited systematic survey data, unsystematic survey data are also including in this study. I examined the temporal changes in altitudinal distribution of breeding bird species in Taiwan by using systematic field investigation data of 1992 and 2014 in Mt. Yushan, and unsystematic records of birdwatchers from 1972 to 2010 in Chinese Wild Bird Federation (CWBF) Bird Report Database. The surveys in Mt. Yushan, conducted with same investigation methods and efforts at same sampling stations in 1992 and 2014, recorded 62 species in total. The weighted average of altitudinal distribution of overall bird species significantly differed between the years, with an average upward shift of 60 m. After excluding reports with low sampling effort or excessive elevation range in CWBF database, I used Generalized Linear Model to detect trends in presence of bird species in seven 500-m elevational bands from 1972 to 2010. Of the 124 species, 8 species showed upward shifting, 19 species showed downward shifting, 28 species showed increasing, 57 species showed decreasing, 9 species showed no significant change, and 3 species showed other results. Some of the results were consistent with other independent census or birdwatchers’ experience in this time period, such as Savanna Nightjar (Caprimulgus affinis), Black-shouldered Kite (Elanus caeruleus) and Malayan Night-Heron (Gorsachius melanolophus) were overall increasing, and Russet Sparrow (Passer rutilans) and Crested Myna (Acridotheres cristatellus) were overall decreasing. Compared with unsystematic reports of birdwatchers, the results of systematic field investigation should be more reliable and can truly reflect the elevation range shifts of local bird species. Meanwhile, unsystematic data might be affected by temporal and spatial bias in locations and surveyors and thus reduce its reliability. However, systematic survey data are usually lacking in most situations. Examining long-term huge unsystematic survey data, though imperfect, can reveal noteworthy warning information and provide candidates of future detailed investigation.

摘要.................................................................................................I
Abstract........................................................................................... II
目次................................................................................................IV
圖次................................................................................................VI
表次.............................................................................................. VII
壹、前言............................................................................................. 1
貳、材料與方法....................................................................................... 8
一、玉山現地調查資料.................................................................................. 8
1.研究區域........................................................................................... 8
2.研究方法.......................................................................................... 10
二、非系統性調查資料................................................................................. 15
1.研究區域.......................................................................................... 15
2.研究方法.......................................................................................... 16
參、結果............................................................................................ 20
一、玉山現地調查資料.................................................................................. 20
二、非系統性調查資料.................................................................................. 21
肆、討論............................................................................................. 27
一、玉山現地調查資料................................................................................... 27
1.玉山各鳥種的海拔分布變遷之結果及可能原因............................................................... 27
2.玉山整體鳥種的海拔分布變遷與國外研究之比較............................................................. 32
3.玉山整體鳥種的海拔分布變遷與預期海拔分布變遷........................................................... 34
二、非系統性調查資料................................................................................... 36
1.臺灣陸域繁殖鳥類海拔分布之可能歷史趨勢................................................................. 36
2.資料特性與分析限制................................................................................... 37
3.與玉山現地調查資料之比較.............................................................................. 39
三、保育意涵........................................................................................... 40
伍、結論............................................................................................... 42
陸、參考文獻........................................................................................... 43
附錄一、本研究分析的鳥類名錄............................................................................. 80
附錄二、玉山47個鳥類調查樣站於1992年及2014年的鳥類密度(No./ha) ............................................ 85
附錄三、124鳥種於1972年至2010年於中華鳥會資料庫各海拔帶之出現比率變化........................................ 96

丁宗蘇 (1993) 玉山地區成熟林之鳥類群聚生態。國立臺灣大學動物學研究所碩士論文。
中央氣象局 (2009) 1897‒2008臺灣氣候變化統計報告。臺北:交通部中央氣象局。
王穎 (2009) 臺灣夜鷹生態研究計畫。臺北:林務局保育研究系列97-18號。
王穎及孫元勳 (1991) 翠峰湖自然保護區動物項調查研究。臺北:行政院農業委員會林務局。
王穎及陳炤杰 (1992) 太魯閣國家公園中、高海拔鳥類資源之調查研究。花蓮:內政部營建署太魯閣國家公園管理處。
王麗婷 (2014) 臺灣原生八哥與外來種八哥時空分布動態與棲地模式之研究。中國文化大學景觀學研究所碩士論文。
李依紋 (2007) 臺灣蝴蝶分布的時空變遷。國立臺灣大學生態學與演化生物學研究所碩士論文。
林嘉郁 (2013) 臺灣中央山脈地表類型和森林分層的溫度遞減率。國立臺灣大學森林環境暨資源學研究所碩士論文。
林軒羽 (2014) 臺灣黑翅鳶(Elanus caeruleus)族群分布趨勢及預測。國立臺灣大學生態學與演化生物學研究所碩士論文。
李玲玲 (2008) 氣候變遷下生物多樣性研究的重要性及展望。林業研究專訊15(2):20‒22。
沙謙中 (1986) 忽影悠鳴隱山林─玉山國家公園鳥類資源。南投:內政部營建署玉山國家公園管理處。
柯佳吟 (2008) 不同海拔分布帶物種於氣候變遷下之影響。林業研究專訊15(2):13‒15。
柯佳吟 (2009) 臺灣特有鳥種現況多樣性與未來分布。國立臺灣大學生態學與演化生物學研究所博士論文。
紀水上 (1998) 臺灣的氣候。臺北:教育部環境保護小組。
許晃雄、陳正達、盧孟明、陳永明、周佳、吳宜昭 (2011) 臺灣氣候變遷科學報告2011。臺北:行政院國家科學委員會。
郭城孟 (1989) 玉山國家公園東埔玉山區維管束植物細部調查研究報告(二)。南投:內政部營建署玉山國家公園管理處。
郭城孟 (1990) 玉山國家公園東埔玉山區維管束植物細部調查研究報告(三)。南投:內政部營建署玉山國家公園管理處。
陳正祥 (1959) 臺灣地誌(上冊)。敷明產業地理研究所研究報告第94號。
楊玉祥、丁宗蘇、吳森雄、阮錦松、林瑞興、潘致遠、蔡乙榮 (2014) 2014年臺灣鳥類名錄。中華民國野鳥學會。臺北,臺灣。
謝孝同及劉小如 (1987) 玉山國家公園帝雉、藍腹鷴生態調查研究報告。南投:內政部營建署玉山國家公園管理處。
盧冠安 (2003) 臺灣山麻雀的分布模式及棲地選擇。國立臺灣大學生態學與演化生物學研究所碩士論文。
廖煥彰 (2006) 塔塔加地區不同植群演替階段之鳥類群聚研究。國立臺灣大學森林環境暨資源學研究所碩士論文。
翟鵬 (1977) 臺灣鳥類生態隔離的研究。東海大學生物學研究所碩士論文。
蘇鴻傑 (1992) 臺灣之植群:山地植群帶與地理氣候區。臺灣生物資源調查及資訊管理研習會論文集。中央研究院植物研究所專刊第11號:39‒53。
姜博仁 (2010) 玉山與塔塔加地區中大型哺乳動物與生物多樣性之長期監測計畫。南投:內政部營建署玉山國家公園管理處。
Ahas, R. (1999) Long-term phyto-, ornitho- and ichthyophenological time-series analyses in Estonia. International Journal of Biometeorology 42(3):119‒123.
Araújo, M. B. and Luoto, M. (2007) The importance of biotic interactions for modelling species distributions under climate change. Global Ecology and Biogeography 16(6):743‒753.
Archaux, F. (2004) Breeding upwards when climate is becoming warmer: no bird response in the French Alps. Ibis 146(1):138‒144.
Barbet-Massin, M., Thuiller, W. and Jiguet, F. (2012) The fate of European breeding birds under climate, land‐use and dispersal scenarios. Global Change Biology 18(3):881‒890.
Beckage, B., Osborne, B., Gavin, D. G., Pucko, C., Siccama, T. and Perkins, T. (2008) A rapid upward shift of a forest ecotone during 40 years of warming in the Green Mountains of Vermont. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105:4197‒4202.
Beebee, T. J. C. (1995) Amphibian breeding and climate. Nature 374:219‒220.
Bergamini, A., Ungricht, S. and Hofmann, H. (2009) An elevational shift of cryophilous bryophytes in the last century ‒ an effect of climate warming? Diversity and Distributions 15(5):871‒879.
Botts, E. A., Erasmus, B. F. and Alexander, G. J. (2011) Geographic sampling bias in the South African Frog Atlas Project: implications for conservation planning. Biodiversity and Conservation 20(1):119‒139.
Bradley, N. L., Leopold, A. C., Ross, J. and Huffaker, W. (1999) Phenological changes reflect climate change in Wisconsin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 96:9701‒9704.
Buckland, S. T., Anderson, D. R., Burnham, K. P. and Laake, J. L. (1993) Distance sampling: estimating abundance of biological populations. Chapman and Hall, London. 466pp.
Chen, I.-C., Shiu, H.-J., Benedick, S., Holloway, J. D., Chey, V. K., Barlow, H. S., Hill, J. K. and Thomas, C. D. (2009) Elevation increases in moth assemblages over 42 years on a tropical mountain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(5):1479‒1483.
Chen, I.-C., Hill, J. K., Ohlemüller, R., Roy, D. B. and Thomas, C. D. (2011a) Rapid range shifts of species associated with high levels of climate warming. Science 333:1024‒1026.
Chen, I.-C., Hill, J. K., Shiu, H.-J., Holloway, J. D., Benedick, S., Chey, V. K., Barlow, H. S. and Thomas, C. D. (2011b) Asymmetric boundary shifts of tropical montane Lepidoptera over four decades of climate warming. Global Ecology and Biogeography 20(1): 34‒45.
Crick, H. Q. P. and Sparks, T. H. (1999) Climate change related to egg-laying trends. Nature 399:423‒424.
Crick, H. Q. P., Dudley, C., Glue, D. E., and Thomson, D. L. (1997) UK birds are laying eggs earlier. Nature 388:526.
Danielsen, F., Burgess, N. D. and Balmford, A. (2005) Monitoring matters: examining the potential of locally-based approaches. Biodiversity and Conservation, 14(11):2507‒2542.
Davis, A. J., Jenkinson, L. S., Lawton, J. H., Shorrocks, B. and Wood, S. (1998) Making mistakes when predicting shifts in species range in response to global warming. Nature 391:783‒786.
Dawson, T. P., Jackson, S. T., House, J. I., Prentice, I. C. and Mace, G. M. (2011) Beyond predictions: biodiversity conservation in a changing climate. Science 332:53‒58.
De Laet, J. and Summers-Smith, J. D. (2007) The status of the urban house sparrow Passer domesticus in north-western Europe: a review. Journal of Ornithology 148(2):275‒278.
Dickinson, J. L., Zuckerberg, B. and Bonter, D. N. (2010) Citizen science as an ecological research tool: challenges and benefits. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 41:149‒172.
Dunn, P. O. and Winkler, D. W. (1999) Climate change has affected the breeding date of tree swallows throughout North America. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences 266:2487‒2490.
Ellison, A. M., Bank, M. S., Clinton, B. D., Colburn, E. A., Elliott, K., Ford, C. R., Foster, D. R., Kloeppel, B. D., Knoepp, J. D., Lovett, G. M., Mohan, J. Orwig, D. A., Rodenhouse, N. L., Sobczak, W. V., Stinson, K. A., Stone, J. K., Swan, C. M., Thompson, J., Von Holle, B. and Webster, J. R. (2005) Loss of foundation species: consequences for the structure and dynamics of forested ecosystems. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 3(9):479‒486.
Etheridge, D. M., Steele, L. P., Langenfelds, R. L., Francey, R. J., Barnola, J.-M. and Morgan, V. I. (1996) Natural and anthropogenic changes in atmospheric CO2 over the last 1000 years from air in Antarctic ice and firn. Journal of Geophysical Research 110(D2):4115‒4128.
Fahrig, L. (2003) Effect of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 34:487‒515.
Feeley, K. J., Silman, M. R., Bush, M. B., Farfan, W., Cabrera, K. G., Malhi, Y., Meir, P., Revilla, N. S., Quisiyupanqui, M. N. R. and Saatchi, S. (2011) Upslope migration of Andean trees. Journal of Biogeography 38(4):783‒791.
Fischer, J. and Lindenmayer, D. B. (2007) Landscape modification and habitat fragmentation: a synthesis. Global Ecology and Biogeography 16:265‒280.
Fitter, A. H. and Fitter, R. S. R. (2002) Rapid changes in flowering time in British plants. Science 296:1689‒1691.
Forero-Medina, G., Terborgh, J., Socolar, S. J. and Pimm, S. L. (2011) Elevational ranges of birds on a tropical montane gradient lag behind warming temperatures. PLoS One 6(12):e28535.
Gage, G. S., Brooke, M. de L., Symonds, M. R. E. and Wege, D. (2004) Ecological correlates of the threat of extinction in Neotropical bird species. Animal Conservation 7:161‒168.
Gaston, K. J. (2010) Valuing Common Species. Science 327:154‒155.
Gaston, K. J. (2011) Common ecology. Bioscience 61(5):354‒362.
Gause, G. F. (1934) The struggle of existence. The William and Wilkins company, Baltimore.
Gibbs, J. P. and Breisch, A. R. (2001) Climate warming and calling phenology of frogs near Ithaca, New York, 1900‒1999. Conservation Biology 15(4):1175‒1178.
Grabherr, G., Gottfried, M. and Pauli, H. (1994) Climate effects on mountain plants. Nature 369:448.
Grinnell, J. (1917a) Field tests of theories concerning distributional control. The American Naturalist 51:115‒128.
Grinnell, J. (1917b) The niche-relationships of the California thrasher. The Auk 34(4):427‒433.
Haberl, H., Erb, K. H., Krausmann, F., Gaube, V., Bondeau, A., Plutzar, C., Gingrich, S., Lucht, W. and Fischer-Kowalski, M. (2007) Quantifying and mapping the human appropriation of net primary production in earth’s terrestrial ecosystems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104:12942‒12947.
Hampe, A. and Petit, R. J. (2005) Conserving biodiversity under climate change: the rear edge matters. Ecology Letters 8(5):461‒467.
Harris, G. and Pimm, S. L. (2008) Range size and extinction risk in forest birds. Conservation Biology 22(1):163‒171.
Harris, J. B. C., Putra, D. D., Gregory, S.D., Brook, B. W., Prawiradilaga, D. M., Sodhi, N. S., Wei, D. and Fordham, D. A. (2014) Rapid deforestation threatens mid-elevational endemic birds but climate change is most important at higher elevations. Diversity and Distributions 20(7):773‒785.
Hastie, T. J. and Tibshiranii, R. J. (1990) Generalized additive models. Chaoman and Hall, London.
Heegaard, E. (2002) The outer border and central border for species-environmental relationships estimated by non-parametric generalised addictive models. Ecological Modelling 157:131‒139.
Hickling, R., Roy, D. B., Hill, J. K. and Thomas, C. D. (2005) A northward shift of range margins in British Odonata. Global Change Biology 11(3):502‒506.
Hickling, R., Roy, D. B., Hill, J. K., Fox, R., and Thomas, C. D. (2006) The distributions of a wide range of taxonomic groups are expanding polewards. Global Change Biology 12(3):450‒455.
Hill, J. K., Thomas, C. D., Fox, R., Telfer, M. G., Willis, S. G., Asher, J. and Huntley, B. (2002) Responses of butterflies to twentieth century climate warming: implications for future ranges. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences 269:2163‒2171.
Holzinger, B., Hülber, K., Camenisch, M. and Grabherr, G. (2008) Changes in plant species richness over the last century in the eastern Swiss Alps: elevational gradient, bedrock effects and migration rates. Plant Ecology 195(2):179‒196.
Hutchinson, G. E. (1957) Concluding remarks. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology 22:415‒427.
Hüppop, O. and Hüppop, K. (2003) North Atlantic Oscillation and timing of spring migration in birds. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences 270:233‒240.
Inger, R., Gregory, R., Duffy, J. P., Stott, I., Voříšek, P. and Gaston, K. J. (2015) Common European birds are declining rapidly while less abundant species'' numbers are rising. Ecology Letters 18(1):28‒36.
IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) (2013) Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Stocker, T. F., Qin, D., Plattner, G.-K., Tignor, M., Allen, S.K., Boschung, J., Nauels, A., Xia, Y., Bex, V. and Midgley, P. M. (eds.) Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. 1535 pp.
Janzen, D. H. (1967) Why mountain passes are higher in the tropics? The American Naturalist 101:233‒249.
Jetz, W., Rahbek, C. and Colwell, R. K. (2004) The coincidence of rarity and richness and the potential signature of history in centers of endemism. Ecology Letters 7:1180‒1191.
Jetz, W., Wilcove, D. S. and Dobson, A. P. (2007) Projected impacts of climate and land-use change on the global diversity of birds. PLoS Biology 5(6):1211‒1219.
Jump, A. S., Huang, T.-J. and Chou, C.-H. (2012) Rapid altitudinal migration of mountain plants in Taiwan and its implications for high altitude biodiversity. Ecography 35(3):204‒210.
Keller, F., Kienast, F. and Beniston, M. (2000) Evidence of response of vegetation to environmental change on high-elevation sites in the Swiss Alps. Regional Environmental Change 1(2):70‒77.
Kelly, A. E. and Goulden, M. L. (2008) Rapid shifts in plant distribution with recent climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105:11823‒11826.
Kullman, L. (2001) 20th century climate warming and tree-limit rise in the southern Scandes of Sweden. Ambio 30(2):72‒80.
La Sorte, F. A. and Jetz, W. (2010) Projected range contractions of montane biodiversity under global warming. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences 277:3401‒3410.
Lenoir, J., Gégout, J. C., Marquet, P. A., de Ruffray, P. and Brisse, H. (2008) A significant upward shift in plant species optimum elevation during the 20th century. Science 320:1768‒1771.
Luckman, B. and Kavanagh, T. (2000) Impact of climate fluctuations on mountain environments in the Canadian Rockies. Ambio: A journal of the human environment 29(7):371‒380.
MacArthur, R.H. (1972) Geographical ecology: patterns in the distribution of species. Harper and Row, New York, USA.
Maggini, R., Lehmann, A., Kéry, M., Schmid, H., Beniston, M., Jenni, L. and Zbinden, N. (2011) Are Swiss birds tracking climate change?: detecting elevational shifts using response curve shapes. Ecological Modelling 222:21‒32.
Martin, T. E. (2001) Abiotic vs. biotic influences on habitat selection of coexisting species: climate change impact? Ecology 82(1):175‒188.
McNab, B. K. (2003) Metabolism: Ecology shapes bird bioenergetics. Nature 426:620‒621.
Menzel, A. (2000) Trends in phenological phases in Europe between 1951 and 1996. International Journal of Biometeorology 44(2):76‒81.
Menzel, A. and Fabian, P. (1999) Growing season extended in Europe. Nature 397:659.
Menzel, A., Estrella, N. and Fabian, P. (2001) Spatial and temporal variability of the phenological seasons in Germany from 1951 to 1996. Global Change Biology 7(6): 657‒666.
Mladenoff, D. J., White, M.A., Pastor, J. and Crow, T.R. (1993) Comparing spatial pattern in unaltered old-growth and disturbed forest landscapes. Ecological Applications 3(2):294‒306.
Moiseev, P. A. and Shiyatov, S. G. (2003) Vegetation dynamics at the tree-line ecotone in the Ural highlands, Russia. In: Nagy, L., Grabherr, G., Körner, Ch. and Thompson, D. B. A. (eds.) Alpine Biodiversity in Europe. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. pp. 423‒435.
O’Neill, R. V., Krummel, J. R., Gardner, R. H., Sugihara, G., Jackson, B., DeAngelis, D. L., Milne, B. T., Turner, M. G., Zygmunt, B., Christensen, S. W., Dale, V. H. and Graham, R. L. (1988) Indices of landscape pattern. Landscape Ecology 1(3):153‒162.
Parmesan, C. (2006) Ecological and evolutionary responses to recent climate change. Annual Reviews of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 37:637‒669.
Parmesan, C. and Yohe, G. (2003) A globally coherent fingerprint of climate change impacts across natural systems. Nature 421:37‒42.
Parmesan, C., Ryrholm, N., Stefanescu, C., Hill, J. K., Thomas, C. D., Descimon, H., Huntley, B., Kaila, L., Kullberg, J., Tammaru, T., Tennent, W. J., Thomas, J. A. and Warren, M. (1999) Poleward shifts in geographical ranges of butterfly species associated with regional warming. Nature 399:579‒583.
Parolo, G. and Rossi, G. (2008) Upward migration of vascular plants following a climate warming trend in the Alps. Basic and Applied Ecology 9(2):100‒107.
Patterson, B. D., Stotz, D. F., Solari, S., Fitzpatrick, J. W. and Pacheco, V. (1998) Contrasting patterns of elevational zonation for birds and mammals in the Andes of southeastern Peru. Journal of Biogeography 25:593‒607.
Peh, K. S.-H. (2007) Potential effects of climate change on elevational distributions of tropical birds in Southeast Asia. The Condor 109(2):437‒441.
Pimm, S. L. and Raven, P. (2000) Biodivesity ‒ Extinct by numbers. Nature 403:843‒845.
Pimm, S. L., Raven, P., Peterson, A., Şekercioğlu, Ç. H. and Ehrlich, P. R. (2006) Human impacts on the rates of recent, present, and future bird extinctions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103:10941‒10946.
Popy, S., Bordignon, L. and Prodon, R. (2010) A weak upward elevational shift in the distributions of breeding birds in the Italian Alps. Journal of Biogeography 37(1):57‒67.
Pounds, J. A., Bustamante, M. R., Coloma, L. A., Consuegra, J. A., Fogden, M. P. L., Foster, P. N., La Marca, E., Masters, K. L., Merino-Viteri, A., Puschendorf, R., Ron, S. R., Sánchez-Azofeifa, G. A., Still, C. J. and Young, B. E. (2006) Widespread amphibian extinctions from epidemic disease driven by global warming. Nature 439:161‒167.
Pounds, J. A., Fogden, M. P. L. and Campbell, J. H. (1999) Biological response to climate change on a tropical mountain. Nature 398:611‒615.
Pöyry, J., Luoto, M., Heikkinen, R. K., Kuussaari, M. and Saarinen, K. (2009) Species traits explain recent range shifts of Finnish butterflies. Global Change Biology 15(3): 732‒743.
Raxworthy, C. J., Pearson, R. G., Rabibisoa, N., Rakotondrazafy, A. M., Ramanamanjato, J.-B., Raselimanana, A. P., Wu, S. , Nussbaum, R. A. and Stone, D. A. (2008) Extinction vulnerability of tropical montane endemism from warming and upslope displacement: a preliminary appraisal for the highest massif in Madagascar. Global Change Biology 14(8):1703‒1720.
Reddy, S. and Dávalos, L. M. (2003) Geographical sampling bias and its implications for conservation priorities in Africa. Journal of Biogeography 30(11):1719‒1727.
Reynolds, R. T., Scott, J. M. and Nussbaum, R. A. (1980) A variable circular-plot method for estimating bird numbers. The Condor 82:309‒313.
Richards, J. F. (1990) Land transformation. In: Turner, B. L., II, Clark, W. C., Kates, R. W., Richards, J. F., Mathews, J. T. and Meyer, W. B. (eds.) The earth as transformed by human action. pp. 163‒178. Cambridge University Press, New York.
Root, T. L. (1988a) Energy constraints on avian distributions and abundances. Ecology 69: 330‒339.
Root, T. L. (1988b) Environmental factors associated with avian distributional boundaries. Journal of Biogeography 15(3):489‒505.
Root, T. L., Price, J. T., Hall, K. R., Schneider, S. H., Rosenzweig, C. and Pounds, J. A. (2003) Fingerprints of global warming on wild animals and plants. Nature 421:57‒60.
Roy, D. B. and Sparks, T. H. (2000) Phenology of British butterflies and climate change. Global Change Biology 6(4):407‒416.
Sauer, J. R., Peterjohn, B. G. and Link, W. A. (1994) Observer differences in the North American breeding bird survey. The Auk 111:50‒62.
Şekercioğlu, Ç. H., Schneider, S. H., Fay, J. P. and Loarie, S. R. (2008) Climate change, elevational range shifts and bird extinctions. Conservation Biology 22(1):140‒150.
Schmeller, D. S., Henry, P.-Y., Julliard, R., Gruber, B., Clobert, J., Dziock, F., Lengyel, S., Nowicki, P., Déri, E., Budrys, E., Kull, T., Tali, K., Bauch, B., Settele, J., Van Swaay, C., Kobler, A., Babij, V., Papastergiadou, E. and Henle, K. (2009) Advantages of Volunteer‐Based Biodiversity Monitoring in Europe. Conservation Biology 23(2):307‒316.
Shelford, V. E. (1931) Some concepts of bioecology. Ecology 12:455‒467.
Shoo, L. P., Williams, S. E. and Hero, J.-M. (2005) Climate warming and the rainforest birds of the Australian Wet Tropics: using abundance data as a sensitive predictor of change in total population size. Biological Conservation 125:335‒343.
Shoo, L. P., Storlie, C., Vanderwal, J., Little, J. and Williams, S. E. (2011) Targeted protection and restoration to conserve tropical biodiversity in a warming world. Global Change Biology 17(1):186‒193.
Smith, H. G., Ryegård, A. and Svensson, S. (2012) Is the large‐scale decline of the starling related to local changes in demography? Ecography 35(8):741‒748.
Su, H. J. (1984a) Studies on the climate and vegetation types of the natural forests in Taiwan(I): analysis of the variations in climatic factors. Quarter Journal of Chinese Forestry 17(3):1‒14。
Su, H. J. (1984b) Studies on the climate and vegetation types of the natural forests in Taiwan(II): altitudinal vegetation zones in relation to temperature gradient. Quarter Journal of Chinese Forestry 17(4):57‒73.
Su, H. J. (1985) Studies on the climate and vegetation types of the natural forests in Taiwan(III): a scheme of geographical climate regions. Quarter Journal of Chinese Forestry 18(3):33‒44.
Tans, P. (2009) An accounting of the observed increase in oceanic and atmospheric CO2 and an outlook for the future. Oceanography 22(4):26‒35.
Tewksbury, J. J., Huey, R. B. and Deutsch, C. A. (2008) Ecology: Putting the heat on tropical animals. Science 320:1296‒1297.
Thomas, C. D. and Lennon, J. J. (1999) Birds extend their ranges northwards. Nature 399:213.
Thomas, C. D., Cameron, A., Green, R. E., Bakkenes, M., Beaumont, L. J., Collingham, Y. C., Erasmus, B. F. N., Siqueira, M. F., Grainger, A., Hannah, L., Hughes, L., Huntley, B., van Jaarsveld, A. S., Midgley, G. F., Miles, L., Ortega-Huerta, M. A., Peterson, A. T., Phillips, O. L. and Williams, S. E. (2004) Extinction risk from climate change. Nature 427:145‒148.
Thomas, C. D., Franco, A. M. A. and Hill, J. K. (2006) Range retractions and extinction in the face of climate warming. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 21(8):415‒416.
Thuiller, W., Lavorel, S., Araújo M. B., Sykes, M. T., Prentice, I. C. (2005) Climate change threats to plant diversity in Europe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102:8245‒8250.
Vitousek, P. M., Mooney, H. A., Lubchenco, J. and Melillo, J. M. (1997) Human domination of earth’s ecosystems. Science 277:494‒499.
Walther, G.-R., Post, E., Convey, P., Menzel, A., Parmesan, C., Beebee, T. J. C., Fromentin, J.-M., Hoegh-Guldberg O. and Bairlein, F. (2002) Ecological responses to recent climate change. Nature 416:389‒395.
Wardle, P. and Coleman, M. C. (1992) Evidence for rising upper limits of four native New Zealand forest trees. New Zealand Journal of Botany 30(3):303‒314.
Weathers, W. W. (1997) Energetics and thermoregulation by small passerines of humid, lowland tropics. The Auk 114(3):341‒353.
Williams, S. E., Bolitho, E. E. and Fox, S. (2003) Climate change in Australian tropical rainforests: an impending environmental catastrophe. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences 270:1887‒1892.
Wilson, R. J., Gutiérrez, D., Gutiérrez, J., Martínez, D., Agudo, R. and Monserrat, V. J. (2005) Changes to the elevational limits and extent of species ranges associated with climate change. Ecology Letters 8(11):1138‒1146.
Zuckerberg, B., Woods, A. M. and Porter, W. F. (2009) Poleward shifts in breeding bird distributions in New York State. Global Change Biology 15(8):1866‒1883.

QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top