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研究生:紀惠齡
研究生(外文):Hui-Ling Chi
論文名稱:地方依附、調適行為策略與擁擠知覺之關係探討
論文名稱(外文):Exploring the Relationship between Place Attachment, Coping Strategies and Perceived Crowding
指導教授:鄭佳昆鄭佳昆引用關係
口試委員:歐聖榮林晏州張俊彥王正平
口試日期:2015-06-27
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:園藝暨景觀學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:園藝學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:72
中文關鍵詞:地方認同地方依賴擁擠知覺調適策略認知調適
外文關鍵詞:Place IdentityPlace DependencePerceived CrowdingCoping StrategiesCognitive coping
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擁擠知覺為個體對四周所看到的人數經價值觀判斷後,當下所產生的主觀評價。然而在不同情況下評價會因不同社會、心理和情緒因子而改變,如在特定地點或情況下,人們經過時間累積後對於地方的情感連結可能會改變對擁擠的負面感覺,這種情感稱為地方依附。
儘管許多研究已指出擁擠知覺跟地方依附有關,但此情感所造成的反應在目前研究中尚未有明確定論。然而有研究指出有可能是因為所測得的擁擠知覺已經過調適,過去研究也驗證心理調適與擁擠知覺之間的關係,此外亦有研究指出不同調適策略在反應機制上有所不同,故本研究目的欲在此架構下加入調適行為以釐清地方依附、調適行為和擁擠知覺三者在使用者反應上的運作機制,以尋找調適作用在地方依附對於擁擠感受關係中所扮演的的影響角色。
本研究實驗地點選在人潮眾多的陽明山國家公園二子坪遊憩區,在實驗過程中,先對當地使用者進行擁擠知覺、地方依附測量,然後再給受測者觀看高度接觸人數之模擬照片,最後再詢問受測者所進行不同調適行為的程度。結果顯示受測者採行調適策略的模式較常採行時間替代、資源替代、合理化、產品轉移等四種調適策略,而不傾向採行絕對替代。認知調適中的合理化和產品轉移分別在地方認同與擁擠知覺之間的關係扮演中介變項,即地方認同對於擁擠知覺沒有直接關係,中間會經過認知調適影響。此外討論當將擁擠知覺視為壓力時擁擠知覺和地方依附對行為調適的影響,結果發現地方認同會減弱當感到擁擠時,想要選擇時間替代、活動替代與資源替代的傾向,而地方依賴則會減弱當感到擁擠時選擇所有行為調適策略的傾向。未來在實用上,了解使用者對地點依附程度所可能採取的應變措施,進而推論遊憩場所的遊客數變異量,或者在遊客評價分析中能更進一步的明白遊客表達背後的原因。

Perceived crowding has been one of the most common research topics in tourism and recreation. It is great important for the carrying capacity and the appraisal of tourists and visitors. However, the evaluation will change depending on the social, psychological and emotional factors in different situations, such as place attachment. Studies have also found place attachment would influence people in making recreational or residential decisions, especially when encountering perceived crowding.
Although many researchers have suggested that perceived crowding could be influenced by the level of place attachment, different directions had been observed for such influences and the mechanism of a reaction in the present study isn’t clear yet. However, some studies indicate that the possibility that expectations or preferences for crowding of visitors were exceeded had adopted coping strategies. Also, the study indicates that different coping strategies also have different reaction mechanism. Therefore, the relationship between place attachment, perceived crowding and coping strategies is worthwhile for further discussion. The purpose of the current study is to clarify the framework by adding coping strategies and to understand the reaction mechanism between place attachment, perceived crowding and coping strategies, and the role the coping strategies play.
Results indicated that respondents tend to adopt time substitution, resource substitution, rationalization, product shift. In terms of Cognitive adaptation, rationalization and product shift were the mediators between place identify and perceived crowding. And in terms of behavior adaptation, place identity can reduce the effect of crowded perception on the trend of temporal substitution, activity substitution and resource substitution, and place dependence can reduce the effect of crowded perception on the trend of all behavior adaptations. This results would help explained more in-depth explanation of the relationship between people and place, and it could be application in recreational management in future to bring people to better life.

誌謝 i
中文摘要 ii
英文摘要 iii
表目錄 vi
圖目錄 vii
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景 1
第二節 研究目的 3
第三節 研究流程 3
第二章 文獻回顧 5
第一節 地方依附 5
第二節 擁擠知覺 8
第三節 地方依附與擁擠知覺間的反應機制 11
第四節 調適策略 13
第三章 研究方法 21
第一節 研究問題 21
第二節 研究設計 24
一、研究地點 24
二、研究工具 26
三、研究流程 34
四、資料處理與分析方法 35
第四章 研究結果 36
第一節 受測者組成 36
第二節 問項統計 37
第三節 地方依附、認知調適行為與擁擠知覺間之關係探討 41
第四節 地方依附、行為調適傾向與擁擠知覺間之關係探討 46
第五章 討論與建議 55
第一節 結果討論 55
第二節 研究方法與限制 58
第三節 未來應用與建議 58
參考文獻 59
中文參考文獻 59
英文參考文獻 61
附錄一 地方依附、擁擠知覺與調適策略之關係探討問卷 I


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