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研究生:李季聖
研究生(外文):Chi-Sheng Li
論文名稱:公園中體健設施使用對高齡者體適能之影響初探
論文名稱(外文):The Effects of Using Park Fitness Equipment on Senior Fitness: A Preliminary Study
指導教授:陳惠美陳惠美引用關係
口試委員:林晏州張俊彥鄭佳昆
口試日期:2015-06-26
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:園藝學研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:園藝學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:103
中文關鍵詞:老年人綠地戶外健身器材功能性體適能高齡者體適能測驗
外文關鍵詞:the elderlygreen spaceoutdoor fitness equipmentfunctional fitnessSenior Fitness Test
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高齡者因身體機能退化以及罹患慢性病,造成身體活動能力的大幅滑落,讓高齡者可能無法生活自理。為了維持身體功能,高齡者經常使用公園中的體健設施,如運用到腿部肌肉的漫步機或滑雪器以及增加手臂靈活的關節復健器等。這些設施的使用對於高齡者的肌肉適能、心肺耐力、柔軟度、敏捷性具有一定效果,但往昔針對體健設施使用影響身體功能的研究甚少。此外,公園中體健設施的使用僅靠解說牌指示,但高齡者可能在解說牌難以理解的情形下,自我判讀使用方式致使造成傷害。因此,本研究的目的:
一、 瞭解高齡者在公園中使用體健設施的行為。
二、 瞭解高齡者使用體健設施的行為對功能性體適能的影響。
三、 從高齡者的觀點瞭解促進使用體健設施的因素或使用可能引發的問題與潛在危險。
本研究之對象為65歲到84歲的高齡者,並分成規律使用體健設施者以及非使用者各三十人。規律使用者指過去半年習慣每週使用體健設施三次以上者;並且每次使用時間超過三十分鐘;非使用者則為過去半年幾乎沒有使用體健設施之公園使用者。資料收集,先請受訪者接受七項行功能性體適能測驗,再進行體健設施的使用行為與意見調查。考量性別、年齡、自覺健康狀況以及身體活動量皆可能影響功能性體適能,因此性別、年齡在問卷中採等比分派控制,而自覺健康狀況和身體活動量則透過共變數分析控制其對功能性體適能的影響力。
結果顯示,規律使用者以及非使用者在七項功能性體適能,包括:30秒座椅站立測驗、30秒手臂屈舉測驗、2分鐘抬腿踏步測驗、雙手背後互扣測驗、座椅體前彎測驗、起身步行2.4公尺折返測驗,以及身體質量指數測量之表現皆無顯著差異。而從平均數觀察,規律使用體健設施者在30秒座椅站立測驗、2分鐘抬腿踏步測驗以及座椅體前彎測驗以及起身步行2.4公尺折返測驗等方面表現較非使用者好。在使用行為上,規律使用者平均每周約使用體健設施五次;每次平均使用時間約四十八分鐘;使用次數最高的為上肢牽引器,依次為漫步器與轉腰器。規律使用者使用體健設施的目的多為運動以及健康為主;以自己前來者居多;使用時間多為上午與下午,晚上較少;多數人喜歡有遮陰且景色優美的環境;大步分規律使用者都認為在使用體健設施上沒有問題;在觀看解說牌的方面,不觀看的使用者表示眼睛差、看不清楚或者認為觀察別人的使用方式即可。非使用者不使用的原因,包含沒興趣;太多人使用;認為是不健康、有痠痛的人才使用的設施等因素。


Deteriorating physical conditions and suffering from chronic diseases result in the elderly having a significant decline in physical activity, so that the elderly may be unable to take care of themselves. In order to maintain body functions, the elderly often use the park fitness equipments, such as Air Walker and Ski Walker which use the leg muscles, and Shoulder Wheel which increases the flexibility of the arm. The elderly use these equipments has some effect on muscular fitness, aerobic endurance, flexibility, agility. However, few studies found the benefit of the park fitness equipment and few indicates those equipments have the true physical effect. In addition, only interpretive panels guide someone how to use the park fitness equipments, but under the incomprehensible case of the elderly may use equipments by self-interpretation and result in physical injury. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to understand the behavior of using the park fitness equipments, and to identify the effect of those behaviors on functional fitness, and to know how to facilitate the elderly using park fitness equipments or to figure out potential injury from the view of the elderly.
The participants of this study are 65 to 84 years old, and divided into regular users and non-users. Each of the group is thirty people. Regular user means that the elderly use park fitness equipments at least six months, over three times per week, and more than thirty minutes each time. Non-users are almost not to use park fitness equipments at the past six months. The mode of data collection, respondents were asked to test seven items of Senior Fitness Test, and then surveyed the behavior and some opinions of using the park fitness equipments. Consideration of gender, age, self-rated health and physical activity are likely to affect the functional fitness. At gender and age adopt a control that assigned a ratio of equality between two group. Self-rated health and physical activity is through ANCOVA controlling their influence of functional fitness.
The results show that the performance between regular users and non-users is not significant differences in seven items of Senior Fitness Test,including 30-second arm curl test, 30-second chair stand, 2-minute step test, back scratch test, chair sit-and-reach test, 8-foot up-and-go test, and body mass index.
On the behavior of useing park fitness equipments, regular users is about using the park fitness equipments with five times per week; the average time of each times is about forty-eight minutes; the popular equipment is Arm Stretch. The most purpose of using park fitness equipments is for promoting physical activity and health. Most of the users use park fitness equipments alone, and like to have shade and scenic environment. Those users are almost agree that use park fitness equipments is no problem. At the part of watching interpretive panels, some of non-watching people mentionsed that they can’t see clearly with their poor eyesight, and some of them thought equipments is easy to use.The reason of non-users didn’t use park fitness equipments is including not interested, too many people use, and so on.


第壹章 緒論 1
第貳章 文獻回顧 4
第一節、 老年人生理特性與體適能 4
一、 老年人的生理特性 4
二、 體適能與老年人日常生活的關係 5
三、 影響高齡者功能性體適能的因素 7
第二節、 運動對體適能的促進 11
一、 運動的效益 11
二、 影響運動效益的因素 12
第三節、 公園的體健設施 15
一、 高齡者對公園環境的需求 15
二、 體健設施的類別 18
三、 體健設施的使用行為 23
四、 體健設施潛在的危險 23
第參章 研究方法 25
第一節、 研究地點與對象 25
一、 研究地點 25
三、 研究對象 29
第二節、 研究設計 29
一、 體健設施使用效益的評估 29
二、 體健設施使用意見調查 30
第三節、 研究工具 31
一、 高齡者體適能測驗 31
二、 使用意見調查 35
第四節、 資料收集流程 40
第五節、 分析方法 41
一、 體健設施對高齡者功能性體適能影響 41
二、 高齡者體健設施使用意見調查 44
第肆章 結果分析 45
第一節、 受訪者特性 45
一、 性別與年齡 45
二、 自覺健康狀況 45
三、 身體活動量 47
四、 功能性體適能狀況 48
第二節、 體健設施使用行為 51
一、 體健設施使用頻率、時間以及強度 51
二、 使用體健設施的陪伴者與時間 55
第三節、 體健設施使用對功能性體適能之影響 57
一、 單因子共變數分析 57
二、 自覺體健設施之效果 60
第四節、 高齡者對體健設施使用之意見 69
一、 吸引使用體健設施的因素 69
二、 體健設施使用的建議與問題 74
三、 不使用體健設施之因素 76
第伍章 結論與建議 78
第一節、 結論與討論 78
一、 上肢牽引器為熱門的體健設施 78
二、 使用體健設施對體適能的影響統計不明顯但自覺有效果 78
三、 使用體健設施的阻礙 80
第二節、 建議 80
一、 後續研究建議 80
二、 設施安全建議 81
三、 體健設施環境設計與設置建議 81
參考文獻 83
附錄 92


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