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研究生:洪珮容
研究生(外文):Pei-Rong Hung
論文名稱:臺北市間接型養成式綠牆植物種類篩選與應用
論文名稱(外文):The Study of Plant Selection and Application on Indirect Green Facade in Taipei City
指導教授:張育森張育森引用關係
口試委員:陳右人林寶秀沈榮壽
口試日期:2015-06-29
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:園藝學研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:園藝學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:134
中文關鍵詞:綠牆光度網目規格肥料頻度
外文關鍵詞:Green wallLight intensityMesh sizeThe frequency of fertilization
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本研究擬篩選適應臺北市環境的間接型養成式綠牆(Indirect green facade)植物種類,並開發其相關技術。首先,調查臺北市現有立體綠牆據點之植物生長表現及現況與建議,其次,探討間接型養成式綠牆植物的光度適應性和網目規格需求,最後探討施肥頻度對間接型養成式綠牆生育之影響。
臺北市立體綠牆應用現況方面,挑選21面綠牆據點進行植物種類及其生長表現、環境條件、工法與介質狀況之調查,並依據整體景觀效果分類為優等(80分以上)、中等(60-80分)、劣等(60分以下)等三種群組。優等者為越橘葉蔓榕(Ficus vaccinioides Hemsl. ex King)、斑葉鵝掌藤(Schefflera arboricola ‘Trinette’)、武竹[Asparagus densiflorus (Kunth) Jessop]、波士頓腎蕨(Nephrolepis exaltata)、小葉赤楠(Syzygium buxifolium Hook. et Arn.)、錦葉合果芋(Syrgonium podophyllum schott.)、蚌蘭(Rhoeo spathacea Stearn.)、變葉木(Codiaeum variegatum Bl.)、彩紋竹蕉(Dracaena marginata Lam. ‘tricolor’)、黃金葛(Terminalia catappa L.)、槭葉牽牛花(Ipomoea digitata L.)及薜荔(Ficus pumila L.)等12種;中等者為黃邊百合竹(Dracaena reflexa Lam. ‘Variegata’)、金露華(Duranta erecta L.)、紫錦草(Setcreasea purpurea Boom.)、鑲邊到手香[Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. ‘Variegata’]及紅萼龍吐珠(Clerodendrum ×speciosum)等5種;劣等者為豔錦竹芋(Stromanthe sanguinea Sond. ‘Tricolor’)、華他卡藤[Dregea volubilis (L. f.) Benth.]、金銀花(Lonicera japonica Thunb.)等5種。綠牆現況問題普遍為植物適應性不佳、遮雨板設備造成綠牆上層光度低於下層、土壤電導度遠低於適當範圍,且多數綠牆有上層之土壤電導度和介質含水量低於下層的現象。
間接型養成式綠牆植物光度適應性篩選方面,以兩種日平均光度,分別為236.8 µmol·m^-2·s^-1(透光率100%)的向陽牆和53.5 µmol·m^-2·s^-1(透光率23%)的遮陰牆,篩選五種植物,結果得知適用於高光環境的植物種類為大鄧伯花(Thunbergia grandiflora Roxb.)、紅萼龍吐珠及炮杖花[Pyrostegia venusta (Ker-Gawl) Miers],百香果(Passiflora edulis Sims.)為潛力種類。大鄧伯花生長速度快、葉片型態對光度反應明顯、景觀效果佳;紅萼龍吐珠和炮杖花生長速度中等、葉片型態對光度反應較不明顯、於高光環境之覆蓋速率快、景觀效果佳。而適用於遮陰環境的植物種類為大鄧伯花,紅萼龍吐珠和炮仗花為潛力種類。斑葉絡石(Trachelospermum asiaticum Nakai ‘Tricolor’)生長緩慢、葉片型態對光度反應較不明顯,無法吸附網目使覆蓋效果差,不適用於間接型養成式綠牆。應用潛力種類時,建議藉由增加種植棵數、整枝修剪或加強維管,以提高覆蓋率及景觀效果。
另以六種植物百香果、炮仗花(攀緣型藤蔓)、大鄧伯花、紅萼龍吐珠、蝶豆(Clitoria ternatea L.)及三星果藤(Tristellateia australasiae A. Richard) (纏繞型藤蔓),四種網目規格4.5 cm、6.5 cm、8 cm及12.5 cm,測試設備需求。結果顯示攀緣型藤蔓植物對網目規格大小較敏感,百香果生長速度隨網目規格越大而越快,喜好大網目;炮仗花種植於小網目牆面初期之生長速度較快,喜好小網目;而大鄧伯花、紅萼龍吐珠、蝶豆及三星果藤於四種網目規格牆面之生長速度與覆蓋率表現無顯著影響。綜合六種藤蔓植物之景觀效果、生長量表現和生理狀況歸納出6.5 cm 為較廣用之網目規格。
施肥頻度管理方面,參試植物大鄧伯花和龍吐珠(Clerodendrum thomsoniae Balf. f.)分別於冬季、透光率100%環境和春季、透光率23%環境進行試驗,使用肥料為20N-8.8P-16.6K之Peters液態肥料和13N-4.8P-10.8K緩效性肥料全能好康多S101型,分為四種處理,無施用肥料(CK);三個月施用一次好康多(25 g/盆) (HC處理);三個月施用一次好康多(25 g/盆) + 每周施用一次2000 mg L^-1Peters (500 mL/盆) (HC+1P處理);三個月施用一次好康多(25 g/盆) + 每周施用兩次2000 mg L^-1Peters (500 mL /盆) (HC+2P處理)。試驗結果顯示,CK之大鄧伯花生長停滯,使用HC+1P處理可使大鄧伯花較早生長至牆頂、覆蓋速率快、景觀效果良好且具有開花表現,而後續維護管理則可改為HC處理,維持綠牆品質。CK之龍吐珠生長表現較差,但仍有觀賞性,而HC+2P處理可使龍吐珠的生長表現最佳、景觀效果良好,後期管理則選擇HC處理,降低維護管理成本。
綜合上述研究,立體綠牆設置時,整體品質受植物特性、環境光度、植栽配置方式、介質條件及維護管理等因素影響。於臺北市地區,間接型養成式綠牆高光環境可選用大鄧伯花、紅萼龍吐珠及炮仗花,低光環境可選用大鄧伯花,選用潛力種類時應調整種植棵樹及整枝修剪;選用攀緣型藤蔓時應注意網目規格,6.5 cm網目適合多數植物。施肥頻度方法於非生長季節及遮陰環境情況下需調高頻度,待植株覆蓋效果表現較完整後,可降低頻度。整體而言,選擇適合的植物種類及相關設備,並配合適當的施肥管理,有助於間接型養成式綠牆之建立。

This study aims to select plant species that adapt well to urban environments in Taiwan for use on indirect green façade and develop relevant techniques in the installation of indirect green facade. Preliminary study was conducted to survey existing green facades in Taipei for the plant status and problems observed with solutions recommended. In addition, selections of plants for use on an indirect green façade were made based on plant adaptability to light and requirements for supporting device. Finally, effects of fertilization frequency on plant growth on an indirect green façade were investigated.
Twenty-one green facades in Taipei were surveyed for plant species used, growth status, growing conditions, construction methods, and substrate conditions. The results were presented in three groups based on overall scores for aesthetic effects: Excellent (>80), fair (60-80), poor (<60). Twelve species including Ficus vaccinioides Hemsl. ex King, Schefflera arboricola ‘Trinette’, Asparagus densiflorus (Kunth) Jessop, Nephrolepis exaltata, Syzygium buxifolium Hook. et Arn., Syrgonium podophyllum schott., Rhoeo spathacea Stearn., Codiaeum variegatum Bl., Dracaena marginata Lam. ‘tricolor’, Terminalia catappa L., Ipomoea digitata L., and Ficus pumila L. received an excellent score. Five species including Dracaena reflexa Lam. ‘Variegata’, Duranta erect L., Setcreasea purpurea Boom., Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. ‘Variegata’, and Clerodendrum ×speciosum received a fair score. Five species including, Stromanthe sanguinea Sond. ‘Tricolor’, Dregea volubilis (L. f.) Benth., and Lonicera japonica Thunb. received a poor score. Some common problems seen in green façade include poor plant adaptability, insufficient light at the upper level due to rain shelter, and unacceptably low soil EC. Most green façades face the problems of lower soil EC and media water content at the upper level than the lower level.
For the study of green façade plant adaptability to light, 5 tested plants were grown on the sunny side (236.8 µmol·m^-2·s^-1 with 100% transmittance) and shady side (53.5µmol·m^-2·s^-1with 23% transmittance) of façade. The results showed that Thunbergia grandiflora Roxb., Clerodendrum ×speciosum and Pyrostegia venusta (Ker-Gawl) Miers adapt well to high light while Passiflora edulis Sims. showed some potential. Thunbergia grandiflora Roxb. grew vigorously with leaf reacting prominently to light which yielded outstanding visual effect. Clerodendrum ×speciosum and Pyrostegia venusta (Ker-Gawl) Miers showed moderate growth with leaf reacting less prominently to light; these plants had fast coverage which helped to enhance the visual effect. Thunbergia grandiflora Roxb. also grew well under shady conditions whereas Clerodendrum ×speciosum and Pyrostegia venusta (Ker-Gawl) Miers had some potential. Trachelospermum asiaticum Nakai ‘Tricolor’grew slowly with sluggish reaction to light making it unable to cling to supporting mesh and resulted in poor coverage, thus was not suggested for use in indirect green façade. When using plants with decent potential, increasing plant number along with proper grooming and pruning and regular maintenance can increase coverage and enhance ornamental effect.
In terms of requirement for supporting device, tested plants Passiflora edulis Sims., Pyrostegia venusta (Ker-Gawl) Miers (Tendrillar plant), Thunbergia grandiflora Roxb., Clerodendrum ×speciosum, Clitoria ternatea L. and Tristellateia australasiae A. Richard (Twiner) were allowed to climb up 4.5 cm、6.5 cm、8 cm and 12.5 cm mesh. The results indicated that tendrillar climbers are more sensitive to mesh size as shown in Passiflora edulis Sims. where the plant grew faster as the mesh size increased. Pyrostegia venusta (Ker-Gawl) Miers prefers smaller mesh as it exhibited fast growth when first planted. Thunbergia grandiflora Roxb., Clerodendrum ×speciosum, Clitoria ternatea L., and Tristellateia australasiae A. Richard showed no significant difference in growth rate and coverage when planted on the façade with four different mesh sizes. After evaluating the ornamental and visual effects, plant growth and physiological state of the six climbers, 6.5 cm mesh was found to be the most versatile.
To find an optimal fertilization schedule, Thunbergia grandiflora Roxb. and Clerodendrum thomsoniae Balf. f. were planted in the winter with 100% transmittance and in the spring with 23% transmittance. Fertilizers used in the study were Peters Solution 20N-8.8P-16.6K and slow-release 13N-4.8P-10.8K Hi-Control S101. Four treatments and a control (no fertilization) were carried out. In HC treatment, 25 g/pot Hi-Control was applied quarterly. In HC+1P treatment, 25 g/pot Hi-Control was applied quarterly with 2000 mg L^-1Peters applied once weekly (500 mL/pot). In HC+2P treatment, 25 g/pot Hi-Control was applied quarterly with 2000 mg L^ -1 Peters applied twice weekly (500 mL/pot). The results showed that Thunbergia grandiflora Roxb. in the control group had stunted growth. HP+1P treatment promoted fast growth and coverage and showed some flowering with excellent ornamental effect. Subsequent fertilization was switched to HC treatment to maintain quality of the façade. Clerodendrum thomsoniae Balf. f. without fertilization (control) underperformed in growth, but some ornamental effect was evident nevertheless. HC+2P resulted in the best growth and ornamental effect for Clerodendrum thomsoniae Balf. f. with subsequent fertilization switched to HC to lower the cost of maintenance.
To sum up above studies, when installing a three-dimensional green façade, the whole visual effect is affected by plant characteristics, lighting conditions, media, and maintenance management. In Taipei, when selecting plant species for indirect green façade, Thunbergia grandiflora Roxb., Clerodendrum ×speciosum, and Pyrostegia venusta (Ker-Gawl) Miers can be grown in high-light locations whereas Thunbergia grandiflora Roxb. can be grown in low-light locations. When using potential species in either high-light or low-light areas, attention must be paid to adjust the number of plants and pruning and grooming. Appropriate mesh size should be used when growing twiner climbers. When in doubt, 6.5 cm mesh size is suggested. During slow-growth season or in shady areas, fertilization frequency should be increased until full plant coverage is reached, after which fertilization frequency can be lowered. Overall, proper selection of suitable plants with supporting devices along with attentive management of fertilization will ensure the successful installation of indirect green façade.

目錄 i
表目錄 ii
圖目錄 iv
摘要 vi
Abstract ix
第一章 前言 1
第二章 前人研究 3
一、立體綠牆工法之類型 3
二、環境對植物生長之影響 4
三、綠牆植物之篩選原則及種類 10
四、硬體設備對綠牆植物生長之影響 11
五、施肥管理技術 12
第三章 臺北市立體綠牆應用現況調查 14
摘要(Abstract) 14
一、前言(Introduction) 15
二、材料方法(Materials and Methods) 15
三、結果(Results) 18
四、討論(Discussion) 24
五、結論(Conclusion) 31
第四章 養成式綠牆植物種類光度適應性和設備需求性篩選 51
摘要(Abstract) 51
一、前言(Introduction) 52
二、材料方法(Materials and Methods) 53
三、結果(Results) 58
四、討論(Discussion) 65
五、結論(Conclusion) 72
第五章 不同光度與季節下施肥頻度對養成式綠牆植物生育表現之影響 94
摘要(Abstract) 94
一、前言(Introduction) 95
二、材料方法(Materials and Methods) 95
三、結果(Results) 99
四、討論(Discussion) 102
五、結論(Conclusion) 105
第六章 結論 113
參考文獻(Reference) 115
附錄(Appendix).............................................................................................................128


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