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研究生:吳承叡
研究生(外文):Cheng-Ruei Wu
論文名稱:環保聖誕紅盆花生產體系之建立
論文名稱(外文):Establishment of an Environmentally-Friendly Irrigation Fertilization System of Potted Poinsettia
指導教授:張育森張育森引用關係
口試委員:葉德銘沈榮壽傅仰人
口試日期:2015-01-13
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:園藝暨景觀學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:園藝學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:118
中文關鍵詞:聖誕紅水分需求肥料需求耐熱性細胞膜熱穩定性水楊酸氯化鈣
外文關鍵詞:poinsettiawater requirementfertilizer requirementheat tolerancecell membrane thermostabilitycell membrane thermostabilitycalcium chloride
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聖誕紅(Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd.)原產於墨西哥山區,是世界上重要的盆花之一,在臺灣年銷量120多萬盆,產值6000多萬,為第二大盆花。由於全球氣候極端化,使臺灣夏季溫度不斷創新高,降雨季節分布不均日益嚴重,加上全球農業生產邁向合理灌溉與施肥及友善環境栽培之趨勢。故本研究擬探討聖誕紅盆花: 1.水分需求與灌溉指標、2.肥料需求、3.耐熱品種篩選及4.化學藥劑提升耐熱性等4大主題,以因應日益嚴重之氣候問題與新世代盆花生產趨勢。
在水分需求與灌溉指標方面,以20%、30%及40%體積水分含量(volumetric water content, VWC) 栽培8週,結果顯示20%VWC處理者會使聖誕紅盆花外觀品質顯著劣化,其株高、莖徑、枝條葉面積、葉片數及地上部乾重顯著小於30%與40%VWC處理者,而30%與40%VWC處理植株間觀賞品質差異不明顯。因此建議聖誕紅盆花生產時,栽培介質含水量不宜低於30%VWC,以免發生落葉造成品質下降。葉片溫度高於環境溫度、淨光合作用速率下降及介質VWC低於30%VWC代表聖誕紅即將受到乾旱逆境,可提供水分灌溉之有效參考。
在肥料需求方面,於扦插後14、21及28 d後施肥進行試驗,得知聖誕紅苗期肥料施用時機,以扦插後14 d開始施用液肥表現最佳,其葉面積、株高、莖徑、地上部乾重、葉綠素計讀值(chlorophyll meter readings, CMR, SPAD-value)、常態化差異植生指數(normalized difference vegetation index, NDVI)等測值均有最佳表現。以不同生長階段施用不同氮磷鉀比例液肥,結果顯示在生長期先後施用Peters 30-10-10、20-20-20和15-20-25之處理株,有最佳表現,其株高、莖徑、地上部乾重、葉面積等皆優於整個生長期皆施用Peters 20-20-20或15-20-25之處理株。
在耐熱品種篩選方面,以不同水浴溫度(25-70oC)處理葉圓片,測得其離子滲漏值,得知以55oC之RI(Relative injury)值、S曲線中點溫度及熱致死溫度較為適合做為耐熱篩選指標,皆可準確評估聖誕紅品種間耐熱性差異,故以此3個數值篩選24個品種15 cm盆聖誕紅,結果顯示聖誕紅 ‘聖誕節’(‘Noel’)、‘彼得之星’(‘Jacobson Peterstar’)、‘嘉年華’(‘Jubilee Red’)、‘聖誕玫瑰’(‘Winter Rose’)、‘諾維亞’(‘Novia’)、‘美貝拉’ (‘Marbella’)、‘四季桃喜’ (‘Luv U Pink’)、‘首相’ (‘Premier Red’)及‘金喜’ (‘Shimmer Surprise’)等9個品種為耐熱品種。此外,由細胞膜熱穩定性所篩選出之耐熱品種‘Noel’、‘Jacobson Peterstar’、‘Novia’與‘Marbella’於高溫(35oC)下,其淨光合作用、氣孔導度、地上部乾重及葉面積等測值下降幅度皆少於不耐熱品種‘天鵝絨’(‘Red Velvet’)與‘冰火’(‘Ice Punch’)。
在化學藥劑提升耐熱性方面,噴施氯化鈣與水楊酸皆可有效提升聖誕紅‘聖誕節’(‘Noel’)、‘紅絲絨’(‘Red Velveteen’)及‘倍利’(‘Pepride’)之耐熱性,其葉溫與葉綠素螢光表現皆顯著優於對照組。而不同品種間最佳施用濃度有所差異,氯化鈣施用皆以10 mM最佳;而水楊酸最佳施用濃度,‘Noel’為400 μM、‘Red Velveteen’為200 μM,‘Pepride’則為100與200 μM,於上述藥劑濃度處理下,聖誕紅皆有較佳之外觀品質。
綜合上述結果,植體溫度、介質VWC與光合作用測定皆可準確評估植體水分狀態,其中以植體溫度與VWC測定兼具簡便、精準且快速的特點,深具產業實用性。扦插後14天施肥與苗期高氮,爾後依生長期逐漸降低氮並提升磷鉀施用濃度之處理,有最佳之生長表現。欲提前篩選聖誕紅耐熱品種,細胞膜熱穩定性為一種準確性的方式。葉片個別噴施氯化鈣或水楊酸,均可提升聖誕紅耐熱性,惟適合濃度依品種而有差異。


Poinsettia is an important pot flower in the world. It is the second largest pot flower with annual sales over 120 million pots valued at about NT$60 million in Taiwan. Poinsettia is native to the mountains of Mexico and requires heavy fertilization. The global climate change has resulted in extreme summer heat and uneven distribution of rainfall in Taiwan. Moreover, agricultural productions worldwide have been moving towards sensible irrigation and fertilization with an emphasis on sustainability. In response to the extreme climate as well as the changes in production methods, this study aims to exa mine these four subject areas:
1) Water requirement and establishing indicators for irrigation for poinsettia
2) Fertilizer requirement
3) Selection of heat-tolerant species
4) Chemical treatments to improve heat tolerance

In terms of water requirement and establishing indicators for irrigation in the production of pot poinsettia, the plants were cultivated with 20%, 30%, and 40% VWC for eight weeks. The result showed that 20%VWC had caused deterioration in appearance quality where plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, number of leaves and shoot dry weight were all significantly lower than those with 30% or 40% VWC treatment. Significant difference in ornamental quality was found between 30% and 40% VWC treatments. It is recommended that the media water content for the production of poinsettia should be at least 30%VWC to prevent defoliation and the associated problems in the decline of quality.
Leaf as well as plant temperatures, net photosynthesis, rate of transpiration, and media VWC are all suitable indicators for irrigation that help to identify potential drought stress prior to any stress-related changes in plant appearance become visible.
Initial application of fertilizers at 14 days after cutting has yielded the best result showing optimal performance in leaf area, plant height, stem diameter, shoot dry weight, chlorophyll meter readings and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Varying the proportions of N-P-K in liquid fertilizer for different growth stages showed that higher nitrogen given during seedling stage (30N-4.6P-8.3K) resulted in the best performance in plant height, stem diameter, and shoot dry weight for all subsequent growth stages.
The selection of heat-tolerant species was done through cell membrane thermostability (CMT). The following nine species of 15 cm pot poinsettia turned out to be heat-tolerant: ‘Noel’, ‘Jacobson Peterstar’, ‘Jubilee Red’, ‘Winter Rose’, ‘Novia’, ‘Marbella’, ‘Luv U Pink’, ‘Premier Red’, and ‘Shimmer Surprise’. When under high temperatures, heat-tolerant species ‘Noel’, ‘Jacobson Peterstar’, ‘Novia’ and ‘Marbella’ showed smaller declines in net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, shoot dry weight and leaf area than those for the non-heat-tolerant ‘Red Velvet’ and ‘Ice Punch’.
Calcium chloride and salicylic acid effectively improved the heat tolerance for poinsettia ‘Noel’, ‘Red Velveteen’, and ‘Pepride’ where the measurements in leaf temperature and CMR were significantly better than the control group.
Optimal concentrations in chemicals varied among the cultivars. The best application concentration for calcium chloride was 10 mM whereas the best application concentrations in salicylic acid differed for the species. Salicylic acid concentrations of 400 μM for ‘Noel’, 200 μM for ‘Red Velveteen’, 100 and 200 μM for ‘Pepride’ resulted in superior appearance quality.
In conclusion, plant temperatures, media VWC and measurements for photosynthesis all can be used to assess the water status of the plant accurately. Plant temperatures and VWC measurements are inexpensive, fast, and accurate; thus have practical applications for the poinsettia industry. Applying fertilizer 14 days after cutting and heavy nitrogen given during the seedling stage will enhance the growth potential for poinsettia and shorten the production cycle. Cell membrane thermostability has proved to be a viable method for the selection of heat-tolerant poinsettia species. Foliar spray of calcium chloride or salicylic acid would improve heat tolerance in poinsettia. The recommended application concentration for calcium chloride is 10 mM, and 200 μM for salicylic acid.


目錄 i
表目錄 ii
圖目錄 iv
摘要 v
Abstract vii
第一章 前言 1
第二章 前人研究 3
第三章 介質含水量對聖誕紅生理與生長之影響 13
一、前言(Introduction) 14
二、材料與方法(Materials and Methods) 15
試驗一、土壤水分測定儀讀值與重量法測得之含水量相關性 15
試驗二、聖誕紅乾旱指標之探討 15
試驗三、介質含水量對聖誕紅生長之影響 16
三、結果(Result) 19
四、討論(Disscussion) 22
五、結論(Conclusion) 26
第四章 肥料施用時機與氮磷鉀比例對聖誕紅生長之影響 40
一、前言(Introduction) 41
二、材料與方法(Materials and Methods) 42
試驗一、施肥時期對聖誕紅幼苗生長之影響 42
試驗二、氮、磷、鉀比例對聖誕紅生長之影響 43
三、結果(Result) 46
四、討論(Disscussion) 49
五、結論(Conclusion) 52
第五章聖誕紅耐熱品種篩選與藥劑提升耐熱性 65
一、前言(Introduction) 66
二、材料與方法(Materials and Methods) 67
試驗一、以電解質滲漏率篩選聖誕紅耐熱品種 67
試驗二、聖誕紅六個品種於高溫下種植之反應 68
試驗三、水楊酸與氯化鈣施用濃度對聖誕紅幼苗耐熱性之影響 70
三、結果(Results) 73
四、討論(Disscussion) 76
五、結論(Conclusion) 81
第六章 結論 101
參考文獻(References) 103
附錄(Appendix) 117


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