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研究生:馬安奇
研究生(外文):An-Chi Ma
論文名稱:公共廣電機構向公民問責的制度研究—以BBC為例
論文名稱(外文):Public Accountability in Public Service Broadcasting:the Case of BBC
指導教授:林麗雲林麗雲引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lihyun Lin
口試委員:程宗明魏玓
口試委員(外文):Chung-ming ChengTi Wei
口試日期:2015-06-22
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:新聞研究所
學門:傳播學門
學類:新聞學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:94
中文關鍵詞:英國廣播協會媒體問責利害關係人歷史制度主義審議式民主
外文關鍵詞:British Broadcasting Corporationmedia accountabilitystakeholderhistorical institutionalismdeliberative democracy
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自1980年代以來,英國廣播協會(British Broadcasting Corporation, BBC)存在的正當性與必要性屢屢受到質疑,為了回應外界壓力,抗衡來自政府或市場的力量,BBC形成媒體問責制度,維持組織獨立精神,2007年的組織轉型更強化了向公民問責的特色。本研究嘗試探討:BBC發展媒體問責制度的歷史脈絡為何?轉型後的BBC理事會(Trust)又是如何透過媒體問責制度與公民互動?

本研究以歷史制度主義為視角,以文獻資料蒐集法為工具,將BBC發展媒體問責制度的過程鑲嵌於歷史脈絡中理解。其次,本研究觀察理事會與公民的互動過程,了解媒體問責制度的權力關係、公民行為與認知、公共利益等面向。

研究結果顯示,BBC從創立時就具備向全國民眾負責的概念,此概念成為發展媒體問責制度的基礎條件。自組織轉型之後,理事會與公民的互動形式分為四種類型:(1)針對整體閱聽人進行公眾意見調查、定期發布年度營運報告與理事會的會議記錄,意圖藉由組織公開透明,建立與公眾之間的信任關係。(2)定期召開閱聽人諮詢委員會,促使積極的公民參與問責體系,而該管道確實有助於達成審議式民主。(3)徵詢利益團體意見,傾聽長期觀察特定議題之公民團體對於BBC的策略建議。(4)接受國會質詢,理論上是更加有效的問責力量,然而實際執行時卻有政治干預之嫌。

最後,本研究認為BBC制度可為台灣公廣機構發展媒體問責制度提供以下參考:1.賦予法律強制力,明訂界定董事會與公民、或者其他利害關係人之間的問責角色、權利與義務。2.將問責概念落實於各個管理層級、事務評估標準、實際執行方法,避免問責過程與組織日常運作脫鉤。


This thesis examines public accountability mechanisms in the British Broadcasting Corporation: how historical context influenced the mechanisms, and how the BBC Trust has interacted with citizens based on the Royal Charter since 2007.

To figure out those two questions, this study takes historical institutionalism approach to analyze data. The finding suggests that the BBC took different actions in an attempt to respond to the public''s need for services and expectations about the BBC in different stages. Moreover, the BBC has interacted with citizens in different ways based approach to accountability since organizational transformation in 2007.

First, for all licence fee payers, the BBC consults them by audience researches and regularly publishes information about how the BBC work. Second, for active citizen, the BBC selects representatives and regularly consults them in the audience council. The evidence shows that the council contributes to deliberative democracy. Third, for interest groups, the BBC consults them for specific issues to improve organizational strategy. Fourth, for another form of citizen representatives, the BBC accepts question in U.K. Parliament occasionally. Although Parliament may promote good governance, it may also trigger political interference in the governing process.

Last but not least, results from this study also demonstrate some important concerns of public accountability mechanism for public broadcasting service in Taiwan.


口試委員會審定書……………………………………………………………i
誌謝………………………………………………………………………………………ii
中文摘要…………………………………………………………………………iii
英文摘要……………………………………………………………………………iv

第一章 緒論 ……………………………………………………………1
第一節 研究背景與動機……………………………………………1
第二節 研究問題……………………………………………………3
第二章 文獻回顧與研究架構 …………………………………………4
第一節 媒體問責……………………………………………………4
第二節 研究途徑 …………………………………………………17
第三節 研究方法與章節安排 ……………………………………19
第三章 BBC發展問責制度的歷史脈絡 ………………………………21
第一節 探索問責的意義(1927~1979)…………………………21
第二節 回應組織外部利害關係人需求(1979~1990)……………22
第三節 改善組織內部問責體質(1992~2004)……………………24
第四節 問責制度成形(2004~2007)………………………………26
一、《皇家憲章》規範………………………………………27
二、理事遴選與成員背景 …………………………………32
三、理事會運作與財務基礎 ………………………………38
第四章 理事會向公民問責:過程與內容………………………………40
第一節 問責過程:以「品質第一」改革計畫為例……………42
一、整體閱聽人 ……………………………………………43
二、閱聽人諮詢委員會 ……………………………………49
三、利益團體 ………………………………………………58
四、國會質詢 ………………………………………………60
五、小結 ……………………………………………………62
第二節 問責內容:閱聽人諮詢委員會論述內容變化……………65
一、權力行使 ………………………………………………65
二、意見衝突 ………………………………………………67
三、議題變化 ………………………………………………68
第五章 結論與建議 ……………………………………………………73
第一節 研究發現 …………………………………………………73
第二節 研究討論 …………………………………………………78
一、探討問責制度文化脈絡的重要性………………………78
二、BBC案例對於台灣公共電視的啟示……………………80
第三節 研究展望與建議 …………………………………………83
參考書目…………………………………………………………………84

圖目錄
圖1:媒體自由、責任與問責的關係圖…………………………………6
圖2:BBC理事會遴選過程示意圖………………………………………34
圖3:公共價值檢測流程圖………………………………………………46
圖4:BBC理事會向公民問責的互動機制圖……………………………77

表目錄
表1:轉型前/後的《皇家憲章》規範董事會/理事會職權之比較………30
表2:2015年BBC理事會成員及其背景列表……………………………36
表3:理事會向公眾諮詢的問題列表……………………………………41
表4:「品質第一」改革草案之公眾意見調查內容 ……………………47
表5:閱聽人諮詢委員篩選標準…………………………………………50
表6:英格蘭地區閱聽人諮詢委員背景列表……………………………52
表7:閱聽人諮詢委員會討論議題類型編碼表…………………………68
表8:閱聽人諮詢委員會討論次數統計表………………………………69
表9:閱聽人諮詢委員會討論議題類型比例……………………………71
表10:BBC發展問責制度的歷史脈絡……………………………………75


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