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研究生:盧逸
研究生(外文):Yi Lu
論文名稱:氮肥種類與施用量對紫花紫錐菊生長及咖啡酸衍生物含量的影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Different Nitrogen Fertilizers and Application Rates on the Growth and Caffeic Acid Derivative Contents in Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench
指導教授:鍾仁賜鍾仁賜引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ren-Shih Chung
口試委員:黃良得陳仁炫黃裕銘張必輝
口試委員(外文):Lean-Teik NgJen-Hshuan ChenYuh-Ming HuangPi-Hui Chang
口試日期:2015-07-21
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:農業化學研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:農業化學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:117
中文關鍵詞:紫錐花菊苣酸卡夫塔酸養分吸收二次代謝物
外文關鍵詞:coneflowercichoric acidcaftaric acidnutrients uptakesecondary metabolites
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紫錐菊 (E. purpurea) 為菊科紫錐菊屬多年生草本植物,原產地於北美洲,為歐美地區相當風行的藥用植物之一,且市場對其相關產品的需求日益提高。紫錐菊是少數被研究證實具有增強及刺激人體免疫系統的功效之植物,所含的活性成分包括多醣體、咖啡酸衍生物及烷醯胺,而其中最具有指標性的為咖啡酸衍生物,如卡夫塔酸 (caftaric acid)、綠櫞酸 (chlorogenic acid)、洋薊酸 (cynarin)、紫錐菊苷 (echinacoside) 和菊苣酸 (cichoric acid)。由於紫錐菊在臺灣的肥培管理資料不多,目前研究皆未考慮其咖啡酸衍生物的含量,且紫錐菊在臺灣的收穫適期目前也沒有明確的定論。本研究以紫錐菊為材料,探討不同種類的氮肥與施用量對紫錐菊的乾重、氮磷鉀吸收、總酚類及咖啡酸衍生物的影響,同時比較紫錐菊在不同生長階段成分含量的差異。試驗採完全隨機設計,處理分別為控制組 (Control, 0 g N plot-1)、化學肥料 (Chem 1, 0.40 g N plot-1)、兩倍化學氮肥 (Chem 2, 0.80 g N plot-1)、三倍化學氮肥 (Chem 3, 1.20 g N plot-1)、有機質肥料 (Org 1, 0.80 g N plot-1)、兩倍有機質肥料 (Org 2, 1.60 g N plot-1) 和三倍有機質肥料 (Org 3, 2.40 g N plot-1),共七種處理,每處理四重複。於幼苗移植盆栽後第150和180天分別採收根部和地上部植體與土壤進行分析。結果顯示施用有機質肥料在紫錐菊採收後能增加土壤有機質含量,且具有較高的總氮、可萃取磷、鈣、鎂及錳的含量,能保持土壤肥力並維持土壤pH值。此外,全部肥料處理對紫錐菊的乾重皆沒有顯著影響。紫錐菊在開花期後仍會吸收氮、磷、鉀、鈣及鎂,並將根的鉀轉移至地上部。施用高量化學肥料會使植物體中氮和鈣的濃度較高;而施用有機質肥料有助於紫錐菊對磷和鉀的吸收,但會降低植物體中的氮濃度,不過會使紫錐菊之酚類及咖啡酸衍生物的濃度增加。綜上所述,考量紫錐菊之活性成分含量以及土壤的永續經營,施用有機質肥料為較佳的肥培策略。其中以有機質肥料處理 (Org 1) 可得到最高的酚類 (18.3 g kg-1) 及咖啡酸衍生物 (36.1 μmol g-1) 濃度。

E. purpurea, also known as the purple coneflower, is a native North American perennial medicinal herb and widely used to treat cold, sore throats, upper respiratory infections, and some inflammatory conditions for hundreds of years. The main bioactive compounds responsible for the pharmacological actions are caffeic acid derivatives (CADs), such as caftaric acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, echinacoside and cichoric acid. Few researches have investigated the relationship between the fertilizer management and the content of bioactive compounds of E. purpurea in Taiwan. The aims of this study were: (1) to investigate the effects of different nitrogen (N) fertilizers and application rates on the growth and caffeic acid derivative contents of E. purpurea; and (2) to evaluate caffeic acid derivative contents of E. purpurea in two different growth stages. The study was conducted under completely randomized design with four replications. The treatments were Control (0 g N plot-1), Chem 1 (0.40 g N plot-1), Chem 2 (0.80 g N plot-1), Chem 3 (1.20 g N plot-1), Org 1 (0.80 g N plot-1), Org 2 (1.60 g N plot-1) and Org 3 (2.40 g N plot-1). The samples of plants (shoots and roots) and soil were taken and analyzed at 150 and 180 days after transplanting (DAT). The results showed that the application of organic fertilizer could maintain pH at a relatively constant level and increase the concentrations of total N, organic matter, Mehlich Ⅲ extractable phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and manganese of soil after harvesting. Moreover, there was no significant difference on the dried weight of E. purpurea in all treatments. After blooming stage, E. purpurea would uptake considerable amount of N, P, K, Ca and Mg, and transported great amount of K from roots to shoots. The high application rate of chemical fertilizer could increase the N and Ca concentrations of the plant. The application of organic fertilizer would enhance the uptake of P and K, but decrease the production of phenol and caffeic acid derivatives in E purpurea. In summary, to consider the content of bioactive compounds and sustainable development of soil, the application of organic fertilizer is a better strategy for cultivating E. purpurea. The highest concentrations of total phenol (18.3 g kg-1) and coffeic acid derivatives (36.1 μmol g-1) were found in Org 1.

誌謝 I
摘要 III
Abstract V
目錄 VII
圖目錄 XI
表目錄 XIII
第一章 前言 1
第二章 前人研究 4
一、 紫錐菊簡介 4
二、 紫錐菊之二次代謝物 5
(一) 親脂性化合物 6
(二) 咖啡酸衍生物 6
三、 紫錐菊之藥理作用 11
(一) 免疫調節 11
(二) 抗氧化 12
(三) 抗菌 12
(四) 抗真菌 12
(五) 抗病毒 13
(六) 抗致突變 13
(七) 抗發炎 13
四、 影響紫錐菊活性成分之要素 14
(一) 栽培方式 14
(二) 肥培管理 15
(三) 收穫調製 16
(四) 逆境誘導 17
(五) 二次代謝物之前驅物 18
第三章、研究目的 19
第四章 材料與方法 20
材料
一、 試驗地點與時間 20
二、 土壤 20
三、 肥料 20
四、 試驗作物 20
方法
一、 試驗設計與處理 23
二、 採樣 24
三、 樣品處理 24
四、 樣品分析 24
(一) 試劑 24
(二) 有機質肥料基本性質分析 26
(三) 土壤基本性質分析 28
(四) 植體分析 31
五、 統計分析 33
第五章 結果與討論 37
一、 施用肥料對種植紫錐菊後之土壤性質的影響 37
(一) pH值 37
(二) 土壤飽和水溶液電導度 39
(三) 土壤有機質含量 41
(四) 總氮 43
(五) 無機態氮 45
(六) Mehlich Ⅲ可萃取磷 47
(七) Mehlich Ⅲ可萃取鉀 49
(八) Mehlich Ⅲ可萃取鈣 51
(九) Mehlich Ⅲ可萃取鎂 53
(十) Mehlich Ⅲ可萃取鐵 55
(十一) Mehlich Ⅲ可萃取錳 57
(十二) Mehlich Ⅲ可萃取銅 59
(十三) Mehlich Ⅲ可萃取鋅 61
二、 紫錐菊生長、養分吸收與分布 63
(一) 農藝性狀 63
(二) 乾重 64
(三) 氮的濃度與吸收 68
(四) 磷的濃度與吸收 71
(五) 鉀的濃度與吸收 74
(六) 鈣的濃度與吸收 77
(七) 鎂的濃度與吸收 80
三、 施用肥料對紫錐菊的酚類與咖啡酸衍生物含量之影響 83
(一) 酚類化合物之濃度 83
(二) 咖啡酸衍生物之濃度 88
第六章 結論 96
參考文獻 97
附錄 111

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