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研究生:顏任祥
研究生(外文):Jen-Hsiang Yen
論文名稱:水稻穎果充實期間其氧氣濃度分析方法之建立
論文名稱(外文):Establishment of the Method for Oxygen Concentration Measurement in Rice Caryopsis during Grain-Filling Stage
指導教授:盧虎生盧虎生引用關係
口試委員:朱鈞陳宗禮羅正宗張孟基
口試日期:2015-07-11
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:農藝學研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:一般農業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:60
中文關鍵詞:高溫稻米品質低氧水稻穎果充實期氧氣感測器
外文關鍵詞:high temperaturerice qualityhypoxiarice grain-fillingoxygen sensor
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水稻於穀粒充實期間遭遇高溫,會導致穀粒白堊質形成,白堊質形成是由於異常堆疊澱粉導致透光受阻,影響外觀品質。氧氣濃度的維持為穀粒內澱粉、蛋白質、脂肪等大分子生合成及累積之必需。前人研究顯示種子內部為低氧狀態,此外,高溫可能加劇種子內部低氧情形,因此,高溫下穀粒內部的氧氣濃度與白堊質形成應有極大的關係。然而,國際間尚未建立測量水稻穎果內部氧氣濃度的方法。為探討高溫下水稻穎果的氧氣狀態與白堊質生成之關係,本研究以建立水稻穎果內部氧氣濃度分析方法為首要目標,以台灣良質米台稉9號為材料,於穎果充實期處理高溫 (35 oC)及常溫 (25 oC),並以積溫為依據,於各處理分別取樣相同積溫之穎果。主要以planar oxygen sensor ( PreSens, Germany )偵測穎果中氧氣濃度,同時使用oxygen microsensor ( PreSens, Germany )輔助驗證實測之氧氣濃度,探討高溫下穎果內氧氣濃度變化與白堊質形成之關係。planar oxygen sensor可以2維平面圖像呈現穎果橫切面的訊號,並以色階變化代表訊號值大小。進一步將圖像數據化,結果顯示在各生育期之穎果內部的氧氣含量均由外到內遞減,表示穎果內部處於較低氧的狀態。同時在高溫情況下,穎果內部的氧氣濃度有較常溫低之趨勢,但並沒有達統計上的顯著水準,推測原因為測量重複數過少,導致測量值間標準差過大。綜上所述,本研究所建立之測量水稻穎果氧氣濃度方法,初步揭示了不同生育期及不同溫度處理之穎果內部氧氣濃度變化情形,爾後可進一步修飾、改善該方法,以期對穎果發育時其內在氧氣濃度狀態、其與生理過程之關係、及與栽培環境、米質形成間的關係有更進一步的瞭解。

Rice chalky grain formation under high temperature is known to be related to the metabolic alteration under stress. Internal oxygen concentration is crucial for maintaining energy balance for starch, protein, and lipid assimilations during rice grain development. Documents revealed that hypoxia metabolism may occur in developing endosperm under high temperature. Therefore, it has hypothesized that internal oxygen level might be correlated with the chalkiness formation of rice grain under high temperature. However, no method for measuring internal oxygen concentration in rice grain has been developed in the world so far. Thus, the aim of the present study was to establish possible methods for measuring oxygen level in developing rice grain, and hope to clarify the relationship between oxygen concentration and grain chalkiness formation under high temperature.
A high quality cultivar Tai-keng 9 (TK 9) was used as material which were exposed to high temperature (35 oC) or control temperature (25 oC) treatment during the grain-filling stage . Caryopsis samples were collected at different development stages base on the cumulative temperature after flowering. In this research, a planar oxygen sensor (PreSens, Germany) was used to measure internal oxygen of caryopsis and an oxygen microsensor (PreSens, Germany) was used to verify the value of oxygen concentration. The results showed that oxygen concentration of caryopsis decreased from external to internal at every grain-filling stage, that is, it is hypoxia at central endosperm. At the same time, caryopsis oxygen concentration under high temperature seemed to be lower than the control, although it didn’t show statistically significant difference. Due to the high time consuming for the oxygen measurement of rice caryopsis, the number of experimental replicate was very much limited; which would lead a large measurement variation at the present study. In summary, the present study has established the method of measuring internal oxygen concentration in developing rice caryopsis, and showed the preliminary results about the change of oxygen concentration at different stages. In the future, the method can be modified and improved to understand the relationship among internal oxygen level, metabolism process, and grain quality formation, especially under stressful environments.


致謝 I
摘要 II
Abstract III
圖與表目錄 IX
壹、 前言 1
貳、 前人研究 2
一、 高溫影響水稻品質 2
1. 台灣稻作栽培環境與高溫 2
2. 高溫影響稻米品質 2
3. 高溫與水稻穎果發育 3
二、 種子內部的能量狀態及氧氣濃度與高溫之關係 3
三、 高溫影響穀粒白堊質生成之生理機制 4
1. 高溫干擾穎果內部澱粉、蛋白質等大分子累積 4
2. 高溫下穎果內部的能量代謝 5
3. 高溫下氧化逆境、細胞程序性死亡與穀粒白堊質之關係 6
4. 高溫下乙烯、多元胺與穀粒白堊質之關係 8
四、 測氧儀器之演進 9
1. 電化學測氧儀器與光學測氧儀器 9
2. 光學測氧儀器之結構 10
3. 測氧儀器panar oxygen sensor 10
五、 測氧儀器之應用 11
參、 試驗推論 12
肆、 材料方法 13
一、 試驗水稻材料之準備及取樣 13
水稻栽培及穎果之取樣 13
二、 農藝性狀分析及品質調查方法 14
1. 穎果重量及水分含量之測定 14
2. 外觀品質觀察 15
三、 氧氣濃度偵測儀器之配置 15
1. 測氧儀器planar oxygen sensor之配置 15
2. 測氧儀器oxygen micro sensor 之配置 16
四、 測氧儀器之校正 16
1. 測氧儀器之校正液配置 16
2. 測氧儀器planar oxygen sensor之校正流程 17
3. 測氧儀器oxygen micro sensor之校正流程 17
五、 測量榖粒內氧氣濃度之操作流程 17
1. planar oxygen sensor測量穀粒內氧氣濃度之操作流程 17
2. oxygen micro sensor測量穀粒內氧氣濃度之操作流程 18
伍、 結果 23
一、 穀粒品質分析 23
1. 高溫影響增加穀粒白堊質生成 23
二、 穎果生長發育之分析 23
1. 在生育期積溫相似的情形下處理間之穎果外觀 23
2. 高溫下TK9穎果之鮮重、乾重及水分含量的差異 24
三、 決定穎果材料及取樣面臨之困難 24
四、 利用planar oxygen sensor測量穎果內氧氣濃度 25
1. 建立planar oxygen sensor測量氧氣濃度方法之歷程及挑戰25
2. 測氧儀器planar oxygen sensor之校正結果 26
3. planar oxygen sensor測量穎果內氧氣濃度之流程建立 26
4. 穎果於黑暗下放置之時間條件 26
5. 穎果橫切面氧氣濃度變化 27
6. 氧氣濃度數據之圖像化 27
7. 常溫處理之穎果氧氣濃度空間分布 28
8. 不同生育期穎果中心氧氣濃度變化 28
9. 高溫處理之穎果氧氣濃度空間分布 28
10. 高溫處理下穎果中心氧氣濃度變化 29
11. 於相同發育天數下高溫處理之穎果乾重 29
12. 於相同發育天數下高溫處理穎果之中心氧氣濃度 30
五、 利用oxygen micro sensor測量穎果內氧氣濃度 30
1. 建立oxygen micro sensor測量氧氣濃度方法之歷程與挑戰30
2. oxygen micro sensor測量穎果中心氧氣濃度之流程建立 31
3. oxygen micro sensor測量穎果中心氧氣濃度 31
陸、 討論 50
一、 依據積溫取樣之處理間穎果大小相似 50
二、 高溫下之穎果充實速率與白堊質之關係 50
三、 穎果內部之氧氣濃度在空間上的分布由外而內遞減 50
四、 穎果內部氧氣濃度隨充實期而下降 51
五、 高溫處理穎果內部的低氧情形可能有加劇之趨勢 51
六、 高溫使穎果充實期加速,穎果中心低氧區域加速擴大 51
七、 高溫下氧氣濃度與米質形成之關係 52
八、 利用planar oxygen sensor測量穎果內氧氣濃度方法之檢討52
九、 利用oxygen micro sensor測量穎果內氧氣濃度方法之檢討53
十、 planar oxygen sensor及oxygen micro sensor之比較 53
十一、 儀器未來應用方向 54
柒、 結論 55
捌、 參考文獻 56


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