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研究生:張家豪
研究生(外文):Chia-Hao Chang
論文名稱:基於軟體定義無線電平台之長期演進技術收發機設計與實作
論文名稱(外文):Design and Implementation of LTE Transceiver on a Software Defined Radio Platform
指導教授:闕志達
指導教授(外文):Tzi-Dar Chiueh
口試委員:楊家驤賴以威
口試委員(外文):Chia-Hsiang Yang
口試日期:2015-07-23
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:電子工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:118
中文關鍵詞:基頻收發機設計軟體定義無線電實時系統
外文關鍵詞:Baseband Transceiver DesignSoftware Defined RadioReal Time System
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近年來Cloud Radio Access Network (Cloud-RAN)被視為基地台架構的演進,有別於上一代的行動通訊網路,其只需將天線及射頻模組建置於服務範圍內,並將大部分的基頻運算以軟體方式集中於基地台的計算平台進行基頻處理、協作運算等,以提高頻譜效益及降低營運成本。在本論文中,以C-RAN為概念,根據3GPP LTE標準,實現以軟體定義無線電(Software Defined Radio)為基礎的基地台以及使用者端系統。
在本論文中,以NI-USRP 2932為射頻模組經過空氣傳送及接收訊號,並在Ubuntu作業系統中以Ettus Research的API及OpenLTE部分功能共同開發軟體收發機,達成了下行及上行雙向通訊的功能,最後再利用多核電腦(multi-cores computer)其可平行執行多執行緒程式的能力和改良收發機的架構以對抗延遲的影響,實現實時的系統。
為驗證系統,結合上述射頻模組及軟體功能,實際展示傳收功能:在下行中,展示了real-time 1.92 MHz、over-the-air的檔案傳輸;在上下行中,亦成功地展示了real-time、over-the-air的雙向通訊,實現了檔案傳輸的功能。藉由展示,證實了軟體定義無線電在LTE收發機的可行性。


Cloud-RAN is viewed as an architecture evolution based on a new base station architecture recently. Unlike conventional communication networks, it just needs to deploy antennas and RF modules in the serving area, and most baseband signal processing is centralized in baseband units using software to increase spectral efficiency and reduce operating costs. In this thesis, based on the concept of C-RAN, we realize the system of basestation and user equipment in physical layer on a software defined radio platform according to LTE standard.
We use the NI-USRP 2932 as the transmitter to tansmit RF signal and the receiver to receive RF signal. Also, we utilize the API of Ettus Research and the functions of OpenLTE to develop the software transceiver in the Ubuntu enviromnet. Finally, we use the multi-cores computer that can run multi-threads program parallelly and propose the improved architecute to resist latency to achieve uplink or downlink communication and let real-time be feasible.
To verify the system, combining the RF modules and software we developed, we do some demonstrations: In the downlink transmission, we can over-the-air transmit files with 1.92 MHz sample rate. Also, we can transmit files with uplink and downlink both ways. We proved that software defined radio in LTE is workable by demonstration.


致謝 i
摘要 iii
Abstract v
目錄 vii
圖目錄 xi
表目錄 xv
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 3GPP LTE簡介 3
1.3 論文組織與貢獻 4
第二章 3GPP LTE 標準介紹 5
2.1 訊框結構 [21] 5
2.2 下行標準 7
2.2.1 下行物理通道 7
2.2.2 下行參考訊號 [21] 13
2.2.3 同步訊號 [21] 15
2.3 上行標準 20
2.3.1 上行物理通道 20
2.3.2 上行參考訊號 24
2.4 偽隨機序列 (Pseudo-random Sequenece) 30
2.5 上下行訊框時間 30
第三章 傳輸機架構 31
3.1 循環冗贅核對(Cyclic Redundancy Check, CRC) 31
3.2 通道編碼(Channel Coding) 32
3.3 速率匹配(Rate Matching)與碼塊連結(Code Block Concatenation) 34
3.4 擾亂(Scrambling)與調變(Modulation) 34
3.5 分層映射(Layer Mapping)與預編碼(Precoding) 34
3.6 資源映射(Resource Mapping) 40
3.7 正交分頻多工調變(OFDM Modulation) 42
3.8 下行物理通道結構 43
3.8.1 物理廣播通道結構 (Physical Broadcast Channel Structure, PBCH Structure) [5] 43
3.8.2 物理下行共享通道結構 (Physical Downlink Shared Channel Structure, PDSCH Structure) [5] 44
3.8.3 物理控制格式指示通道結構 (Physical Control Format Indicator Channel Structure, PCFICH Structure) [5] 45
3.8.4 物理下行控制通道結構 (Physical Downlink Control Channel Structure, PDCCH Structure) [5] 46
3.8.5 物理混合式自動傳送請求指示通道結構 (Physical HARQ Indicator Channel Structure, PHICH Structure) [5] 47
3.9 上行物理通道結構 48
3.9.1 物理上行共享通道結構 (Physical Uplink Shared Channel Structure, PUSCH Structure) [5] 48
3.9.2 物理上行控制通道結構 (Physical Uplink Control Channel Structure, PUCCH Structure) [5] 49
3.9.3 物理隨機接入通道結構 (Physical Random Access Channel Structure, PRACH Structure) [5] 50
第四章 接收機架構 51
4.1 下行接收機 [21] 51
4.1.1 簡介 51
4.1.2 符元邊界粗估 (Coarse Symbol Boundary Detection)[21] 54
4.1.3 分數載波頻率飄移估測 (Fractional CFO Estimation)[21] 55
4.1.4 PSS偵測[20][21] 56
4.1.5 SSS偵測[20][21] 57
4.1.6 符元邊界細估 (Fine Symbol Boundary Detection) [21] 61
4.1.7 通道估測 (Channel Estimation)[21] 61
4.1.8 載波頻率飄移與取樣時脈飄移追蹤 (CFO and SCO Tracking)[21][22] 62
4.1.9 時間偏移補償 (Timing Offset Compensation) 63
4.1.10 等化與解調 (Equalization and Demodulation) 64
4.1.11 通道解碼 (Channel Decoding) 65
4.1.12 物理廣播通道解碼 (Physical Broadcast Channel Decoding, PBCH Decoding) 66
4.1.13 物理控制格式指示通道解碼 (Physical Control Format Indicator Channel Indicator Decoding, PCFICH Decoding) 67
4.1.14 物理下行控制通道解碼 (Physical Downlink Control Channel Decoding, PDCCH Decoding) 67
4.1.15 物理下行共享通道解碼 (Physical Downlink Shared Channel Decoding, PDSCH Decoding) 69
4.1.16 物理混合式自動傳送請求指示通道解碼 (Physical HARQ Indicator Channel Decoding, PHICH Decoding) 70
4.2 上行接收機 72
4.2.1 簡介 72
4.2.2 多使用者載波頻率飄移與取樣時脈飄移估計 73
4.2.3 隨機接入偵測 (Random Access Detection) 74
4.2.4 上行定時提前估計 (Uplink Timing Advance Estimation) 76
4.2.5 物理上行共享通道解碼 (Physical Uplink Shared Channel Decoding) 78
4.2.6 物理上行控制通道解碼 (Physical Uplink Control Channel Decoding) 79
第五章 軟體定義無線電平台 81
5.1 軟體定義無線電平台架構 81
5.2 應用程式介面 83
5.3 多執行緒控制 85
5.4 時間控制與同步設計 86
5.5 錯誤處理機制 91
第六章 系統整合 93
6.1 基地台端系統整合 93
6.2 使用者端系統整合 95
6.3 多核心加速與實時實現 97
6.3.1 多執行緒 (Multithreading) 97
6.3.2 硬體技巧 [33] 105
6.4 展示成果 108
6.4.1 下行實時傳輸系統 109
6.4.2 上下行雙向傳輸系統 111
第七章 結論與未來展望 113
參考文獻 115




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