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研究生:林懿蘋
研究生(外文):Yi-Ping Lin
論文名稱:翡翠水庫水生生物相與水質之相關性研究
論文名稱(外文):The relationship between aquatic biota and water quality in Feitsui Reservoir
指導教授:侯文祥侯文祥引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wen-Shang Hou
口試委員:廖文亮余化龍謝政道
口試委員(外文):Wen-Lian LiaoHwa-Lung YuCheng-Tiao Hsieh
口試日期:2015-06-16
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:漁業科學研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:漁業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:84
中文關鍵詞:翡翠水庫生物水質管理法水質食藻魚類優養化
外文關鍵詞:Feitsui Reservoirbiomanipulationwater qualityplanktivorous fisheutrophication
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  近年來世界各國每年投入大量經費進行水域優養化處理。傳統生物水質管理法以自1975年以來在溫帶地區已成功實行;熱帶與亞熱帶國家則使用非傳統生物水質管理法。台灣地處熱帶與溫帶交界處,可適用之生物水質管理法對策目前尚未有定論。翡翠水庫為台灣第二大水庫,供應大台北都會區的民生用水,本研究將水庫集水區水域自上游至大壩,以水深區分為A、B、C三區,並分析2007至2014年間的水質與藻類、浮游動物、魚類等生物相之間的相關性,試圖找出適用於翡翠水庫的生物水質管理法與目標物種,以提供預防優養化的策略。
  由水質分析結果顯示,翡翠水庫B、C區水域為貧養水質,而近上游的A區水域為中養狀態。由浮游動物與水質之相關性分析得知,A區浮游動物與藻類呈現輕至中度的負相關 (0.1 < R2 < 0.6),在魚類密度低的情況下,雖然浮游動物密度低且體型小 (<3 mm),仍可有效抑制藻類密度,可實施傳統型生物水質管理法。
  由水庫內優勢魚種與水質的相關性分析得知,鯉魚及吳郭魚對水質具不良影響,與水體透明度呈現輕度至中度的負相關。紅鰭鮊對水質並無助益。黑鰱在水庫中的族群穩定,其濾食藍綠藻的比例與藻類密度呈現高度正相關 (R2 > 0.6),顯示黑鰱能夠有效抑制藍綠藻族群密度,可成為翡翠水庫實施非傳統生物水質管理法的目標魚種。
  在預防優養化的對策,由於翡翠水庫集水區內A區與B、C區水域之水深及生物組成差異,建議分別實行兩種不同之生物水質管理法模式。在永安以上之A區水域實施傳統生物水質管理法確保浮游動物族群穩定,以有效抑制藻類密度;在永安以下的B、C區水域實施非傳統生物水質管理法,保持黑鰱族群量,應可有效預防優養化發生。


  In recent year, millions of dollars are invested for lake and reservoir restoration. The classical biomanipulation method have been well developed in temperate regions since 1975. And the non-classical biomanipulation is used in tropical regions. Taiwan is subject to both tropical and temperate climatic influence. There was no feasible biomanipulation method yet. Feitsui Reservoir is the second largest reservoir in Taiwan. It supplies our domestic water of taipei-keelung metropolitan area. We analyzed the correlation between water quality, algae, zooplanktons and fishes in the reservoir to find the feasible biomanipulation strategy and target species.
  The water quality of B,C region were oligotrophic, but the A region was mesotrophic. In A region, the relationship between zooplanktons and algae showed a postive mild-moderately correlation (0.1≦R2<0.6). Even though the sizes of zooplankton were less than 3 mm), the grazing activities of cladocerans and copepods could inhibit algal biomass effectively when the fish density was low. This indicated that a classical biomanipulation could be implemented in A region.
  In the major fish species, tilapia and common carp showed bad effect to water quality.The results showed a negative mild-moderately correlations between those fishes and water clarity. Redfin culter make no siginificant effect to water quality. The bighead carp community was steady these years. The percentage of blue-green algae intake of bighead carp was proportional to algal biomass (R2≧6.0). It indicates that bighead carp had the potential to be a target species for preventing blue-green algae density in B,C region of Taipei Feitsui Reservoir.
  Due to the differences of depth and animal composition between A, B and C regions, two different methods of biomanipulation can be taken. In A region, enhancing of the grazing activity of zooplanktons can lead to successful classical biomanipulation. In B,C regions, we can increase the bighead carp stock up to the effective density indicated by previous studies. Bighead carp can prevent the eutrophication in reservoir.



目錄
致謝 I
中文摘要 II
英文摘要 III
目錄 V
圖目錄 VII
表目錄 VIII
名詞解釋 IX

第一章、前言 1

第二章、文獻探討 4
2.1 優養化與常見之水質管理措施 4
2.2 傳統生物水質管理法 4
2.2.1 溫帶淡水水域生物相 7
2.2.2 傳統生物水質管理法的目標、優勢與操作 13
2.2.3 翡翠水庫實施傳統生物水質管理法的評估 13
2.3 非傳統生物水質管理法 15
2.3.1 非傳統生物水質管理法的緣起 15
2.3.2非傳統生物水質管理法與傳統生物水質管理法的差異 16
2.3.3 魚類、浮游動物、沉水植物的交互作用 20
2.3.4 翡翠水庫實施非傳統生物水質管理法的評估 20
第三章、研究材料與方法 21
3.1 研究地點 21
3.2 浮游生物採樣 22
3.3 魚類採樣 23
3.4 數據分析 24

第四章、結果與討論 25
4.1 翡翠水庫水質變化 25
4.2 翡翠水庫藻類變化 28
4.3 翡翠水庫浮游動物 31
4.4 五種優勢魚種的數量、食性、生活型態與水質之相關性 39
4.5 適用非傳統生物水質管理法之目標魚種篩選 67

第五章、結論與建議 68
5.1 翡翠水庫水質及水生生物相管理現況 68
5.2 翡翠水庫A區以傳統生物水質管理法之實行評估 68
5.3 翡翠水庫B、C區以非傳統生物水質管理法之目標魚種確認 69
5.4 翡翠水庫以生物水質管理法作為優養化預防對策 70

第六章、參考文獻 71


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