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研究生:謝天富
研究生(外文):Tian-Fu Hsieh
論文名稱:翅膀旋轉及拍翅相位對豆娘拍撲飛行之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effect of Wing Rotation and Phase Lag on Flapping Flight of Damselflies
指導教授:楊鏡堂楊鏡堂引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jing-Tang Yang
口試委員:馬萬鈞王興華紀凱容潘國隆
口試日期:2015-06-24
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:機械工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:69
中文關鍵詞:豆娘翼前緣渦漩撲翼飛行翅膀旋轉渦漩互動
外文關鍵詞:amselflyleading edge vortexflapping flightwing rotationvortices interaction
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豆娘具有敏捷的操控性並能藉由調整雙翅的頻率、相位、攻角進行靈活的飛行,因此本文以兩種台灣常見的豆娘中華珈蟌(Psolodesmus mandarinus)及細胸珈蟌(Mnais tenuis)作為研究對象,研究豆娘在撲翼飛行時使用的正向旋轉機制,藉由實驗觀測與數值模擬的比對,結合流固耦合與動態網格技術,得到豆娘在飛行時能藉由翅膀旋轉增加升力,結果可以應用在仿生撲翼機構的設計上,提供飛行策略的設計概念。
實驗將豆娘放入壓克力箱中,藉由高速攝影機捕捉豆娘自由飛行時的拍翅動作,並利用二維PIV技術將流場可視化,藉由流場與動作分析,探討豆娘拍撲飛行時所採用的特殊機制與流場渦漩間的相互關係。流場分析得到,豆娘在下拍時雙翅皆能產生渦漩並由翼尖開始脫離翅膀表面,並藉由成對的渦漩產生射流提供飛行所需升力,此結果與數值模擬中得到之流場共同現象相吻合,藉此驗證模擬中之動作參數雖然皆以簡單函數逼近,但並不影響流場渦漩之趨勢。動作分析觀察到,兩種豆娘在自由飛行中皆採用翅膀由後向前的正向旋轉模式,因此將兩種不同的旋轉模式加入數值模擬中發現,在雙翅無相位差時,翅膀的旋轉改變了表面在水平及垂直方向上的投影量,因此加入旋轉動作後在一個上拍或下拍的衝程中的升力略微降低、阻力卻大幅上升,此結果看似對於拍撲飛行有著反效果但考慮完整一週期下之合力,正向旋轉能提供正值的升力與負值的阻力即推力。反向旋轉在上拍時產生的渦漩結構較完整,翅膀表面生成之低壓區也較大,進而產生強度更強的射流,然而其方向向上,反而造成負值的升力;而正向旋轉能減低上拍時產生的負升力值,使一週期之平均升力大幅提升,並在上拍時能產生一強大的推力,此結果說明了為何豆娘在拍撲飛行時皆使用正向旋轉而非反向旋轉。


This study is aimed to investigate the flapping fight of damselfly species Psolodesmus mandarinus and Mnais tenuis. By experimental observation and numerical simulation with fluid-structure interaction and dynamic mesh technique, we found out that damselfly can increase lift force by rotating their wing on flapping flight. The results can be applied on the design of biomimetic flapping mechanism and micro aerial vehicle.
In the experiment, damselflies free-fly in acrylic chamber. High speed camera is used to capture the flapping motion and flow field while two dimensional PIV technique shows the interaction between the motion and vortex structure. In motion analysis, both species of damselflies utilize forward rotation, then adding this rotation motion into the numerical simulation. Comparing three kind of flapping motion, non-rotation, forward rotation, and backward rotation, while tandem wing has 0 degree phase lag. Results show that wing rotation changes wing surface area on horizontal and vertical direction. Flapping with rotation decrease lift force and increase drag force on each stroke but considering a whole flapping period, forward rotation can generate positive lift force and negative drag force which is thrust. Leading edge vortex and low pressure area on wing surface of backward rotation are stronger during up-stroke. It causes generating of negative lift force, however, forward rotation can decrease negative lift force during up-stroke. Therefore, It promote mean lift force greatly in a whole flapping period and can generate thrust during up-stroke. The result shows that why damselflies utilize forward rotation in stead of backward rotation on their flapping flight.


口試委員會審定書 i
誌謝 ii
摘要 iii
Abstract iv
目錄 v
圖表目錄 ix
符號說明 xii
第一章 前言 1
1-1 研究背景 1
1-2 研究動機 2
第二章 文獻回顧 3
2-1 微型飛行器 4
2-1.1 飛行器的分類 5
2-1.2 微型飛行器的發展困境 5
2-2 名詞介紹 6
2-3 豆娘構造簡介 7
2-4 渦度與環流量 9
2-4.1 Kutta-Joukowski定理 9
2-4.2 渦漩環理論模式 10
2-5 撲翼飛行之物理機制 11
2-5.1 夾翼與拋翼 11
2-5.2 翼前緣渦旋 11
2-5.3 翼尖渦旋 12
2-5.4 翅膀旋轉 12
2-5.5 尾流捕獲 13
2-6 昆蟲飛行研究 14
2-6.1 拍撲機構 14
2-6.2 數值模擬 14
第三章 研究方法 16
3-1 研究架構 16
3-2 統御方程式 16
3-3 實驗參數與因次分析 18
3-4 研究物種 20
3-5 軟體介紹 21
3-6 流固耦合 22
3-7 網格介紹 23
3-7.1 網格種類 23
3-7.2 動態網格 25
3-8 物理建模 25
3-8.1 固力模型 25
3-8.2 流力模型 26
3-9 實驗分析 27
第四章 結果與討論 31
4-1 拍撲流場分析 31
4-2 雙翅相位與翅膀旋轉之探討 35
4-2.1 雙翅相位差 35
4-2.2 翅膀旋轉 36
4-3 撓性翼與來流速度 44
4-4 飛行動作觀察 48
第五章 結論與未來展望 61
5-1 結論 61
5-2 未來展望 63
5-3 碩士論文研究甘梯圖 64
參考文獻 65


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