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研究生:鄭皓文
研究生(外文):Hao-Wen Cheng
論文名稱:二戰回憶錄與1960年代法國歷史記憶的轉折-以《被遺忘的士兵》為例
論文名稱(外文):The Memoires of the Second World War And the Transformation of French Historical Memories in the 1960’s-Taking Le Soldat Oublié as An Example
指導教授:周樑楷周樑楷引用關係
指導教授(外文):Liang-Kai Choug
口試委員:楊肅獻潘宗億
口試委員(外文):Su-Hsien YangTsung-Yi Pan
口試日期:2015-07-29
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:歷史學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:歷史學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:114
中文關鍵詞:蓋伊‧薩傑被遺忘的士兵法國歷史記憶通敵創傷認同二戰回憶錄
外文關鍵詞:Guy SajerLe Soldat oubliéFrench historical memorycollaborationtraumaidentitymemoires of the Second World War
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1967年蓋伊‧薩傑(Guy Sajer)《被遺忘的士兵》(Le Soldat oublié)的出版,標示著戰後法國二戰記憶的轉向。自1944年至1967年以來一直主宰著二戰記憶的抵抗者神話(戴高樂神話)自此被打破,從而進入一段通敵記憶大量復甦的時期。然時至今日,當通敵行為的研究持續吸引大量法國史學者的目光時,學界對這部著作的討論仍多集中於作者與文本內容的真實性,或是此類記憶所帶有的納粹思想等議題。換言之,少有以薩傑本人的生平與這部著為媒介,探討二戰直到60年代末期法國記憶文化變遷之作品。因此,本研究以《被遺忘的士兵》為主要的材料,期望能回到薩傑所處的時代,藉由薩傑的雙眼重新認識不同視角下戰後法國記憶政策,以及他寫作的社會背景與個人動機。以其社會背景而言,1951年「侮辱國家罪」(Indignité nationale)的廢除與1953年格拉訥河畔奧拉杜爾(Oradour-sur-Glane)屠殺案的審判,標示著通敵行為的除罪化。1968年的「五月風暴」(Mai 68),則使這部著作成為法國暢銷著作。而就個人動機而論,戰爭所造成的心理創傷與戰時到戰後的認同問題,也成為薩傑書寫的原動力。藉由觀察這些因素,薩傑的《被遺忘的士兵》標示著戴高樂記憶政策的鬆動,開啟70年代以降通敵記憶的蓬勃復甦。

The publication of Guy Sajer’s Le Soldat oublié in 1967 indicating a transitional point of post-war French memory of the Second World War. Since then, the Resister’s myth (or Gaullist myth), the dominating policy of memory from 1944 to 1967, has been undermined, therefore leading the nation into a period of memory boom of the collaboration. This work of memory, however, has been ignored or underestimated by most scholars in the past four decades. While scholars examined with sedulous carefulness especially on its veracity and authenticity or on the controversial issue of this very kind of memory, barely did they pay an effort on the work and author himself. This thesis will, consequently, focusing on the policy of memory, on the social context, and on the life of Guy Sajer in the post-war France. After inspecting the changes of the legal system and the author’s mental condition by the theory of trauma and self-identification, this thesis reveals that Le Soldat oublié was written with a motivation composed of social and personal reasons. Moreover, as the first work published by a former collaborator in the late 1960s, it forecasted the following period of memory boom, a time that the long-repressed memory of collaboration would eventually destroy the myth of de Gaulle.

目 錄

中文摘要............................................... i
英文摘要.............................................. ii
第一章 序論 1
第一節 研究背景與目的 1
第二節 史料分析與文獻回顧 5
第三節 研究取徑與概念 18
第四節 論文架構 25
第二章 戰爭與和平:《被遺忘的士兵》作者的個人經歷 27
第一節 走過死亡的幽谷:薩傑的出生與戰爭經驗 29
第二節 回歸太平:戰後的生活與回憶錄的書寫 38
第三節 小結 42
第三章 法國戰後二戰記憶文化之發展與變遷 44
第一節 抵抗、審判與神話(1944-1968) 46
第二節 記憶崩解到再建構(1968-) 52
第三節 小結 61
第四章 從記憶到書寫:由個人與法國戰後社會背景談起 63
第一節 戰後審判與觀點的轉變 65
第二節 創傷性敘事與回憶錄的書寫 71
第三節 自我的想像與衝突:認同危機 76
第四節 小結 88
結論 91
參考文獻 96
附錄 106
附錄一 1939-1980重要事件表 106
附錄二 1939-1980年雙叟文學獎獲獎作品 111


參考文獻

一、史料

1. Sajer, Guy. Le soldat oublié. Paris: Robert Laffont, 1967.
2. ────. “Sajer to Schulz (13 Oct. 1996).” In Douglas E. Nash. “The Forgotten Soldier: Unmasked.” Army History, No. 42: 12-22 (1997)
3. ────. “Sajer to Nash (16 Jan. 1997).” In Douglas E. Nash. “The Forgotten Soldier: Unmasked.” Army History, No. 42: 12-22 (1997)
4. Stephané L. “Interview BD: Dimitri (Guy Sajer, 2003.12).” BrusselsBdTour (http://www.brusselsbdtour.com/default.aspx?section=interviews&interId=50),最後造訪2015.7.1。
5. ────. "Le Soldat oublié de Guy Sajer est-il une uvre de fiction ou un document autobiographique." Guerres & Histoire, no 5: 28 (février 2012).

二、中文資料

(一)研究專著

1. 丹尼爾‧沙克特(Daniel L. Schacter),《記憶七罪》(The Seven Sins of Memory),李明譯。台北市:大塊文化,2002。
2. 史蒂文•科恩(Steven Cohan)和琳達•夏爾斯(Linda M. Shires)著,《講故事:對敘事虛構作品的理論分析》(Telling Stories: A Theoretical Analysis of Narrative Fiction),張方譯。板橋:駱駝,1997。
3. 皮耶‧諾哈(Pierre Nora)編,《記憶所繫之處》(Les Lieux de mémoire),戴麗娟譯。臺北:力行,2012。
4. 本尼迪克特‧安德森(Benedict Anderson),《想像的共同體:民族主義的起源與散布》,吳叡人譯。臺北:時報文化,2015。
5. 米雪兒‧克羅斯利(Michele L. Crossley),《敘事心理與研究:自我、創傷與意義的建構》(Introducing Narrative Psychology: Self, Trauma and the Construction of Meaning),吳芝儀、朱儀羚等譯。嘉義市:濤石文化,2004。
6. 弗朗茲‧法農(Frantz Fanon),《黑皮膚,白面具》(Peau Noire, Masques Blancs),陳瑞樺譯。臺北:心靈工坊文化,2005。
7. 金重遠,《20世紀的法蘭西》。上海:復旦大學出版社,2004。
阿斯特莉特‧埃爾(Astrid Erll)編,《文化記憶理論讀本》(Memory in Culture),陳玲玲譯。北京:北京大學出版,2012。
8. 張玉法、張瑞德主編,《中國現代自傳叢書》。台北市:龍文,1989。
9. 哈洛德‧伊薩克(Harold R. Issacs),《族群》(Idols of the Tribe: Group Identity and Political Change),鄧伯辰譯。臺北縣:立緒文化,2004。
10. 施琪嘉,《創傷心理學》。上海:中國醫藥科技,2005。
11. 威廉.夏伊勒(William Shirer),《第三帝國興亡史》(The Rise and Fall of The Third Reich),董樂山譯。台北:左岸,2010。
12. 茱蒂斯‧赫曼(Judith Lewis Herman),《從創傷到復原》(Trauma and Recovery),施宏達、陳文琪譯。臺北:遠流,2003。
13. 莎拉.杜南(Sarah Dunant)、羅伊.波特(Roy Porter),《焦慮的年代》(The Age of
Anxiety),呂捷譯。台北:經典傳訊文化,1999。
14. 莫里斯‧哈布瓦赫(Maurice Halbwachs),《論集體記憶》(On Collective Memory),畢然、郭金華譯。上海:上海人民出版社,2002。
15. 漢娜‧鄂蘭(Hannah Arendt),《平凡的邪惡:艾希曼耶路薩冷大審判紀實》(Eichmann in 26. Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil),施奕如譯。臺北:玉山社,2013。
16. 趙冬梅,《心理創傷的理論與研究》。暨南:暨南大學出版社,2011。
羅洛‧梅(Rollo May),《焦慮的意義》(The Meaning of Anxiety),朱侃如譯。臺北:立緒文化,2004。

(二)期刊論文

1.王明珂,〈誰的歷史:自傳、傳記與口述歷史的社會記憶本質〉,《思與言》,34: 3 (台北:1996),頁149-184。
2.王明珂,〈歷史事實、歷史記憶與歷史心性〉,《歷史研究》,2001: 5(台北:2001),頁147-184。
3.王明珂,〈集體歷史記憶與族群認同〉,《當代》,91(台北:1993),頁6-18。
4.許雪姬,〈臺灣光復初期的語文問題–以二二八事件前後為例〉,《思與言》,29 :4(台北:1991),頁155-184。
5.黃延齡,〈歷史集體記憶的作用與濫用〉,《歷史月刊》,246(2008),頁112-118。
6.陳登武,〈一場大屠殺與人民的記憶─以Atom Egoyan〈A級控訴〉為中心〉,《興大立史學報》,17 (2006),頁641-676。

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40.Zuber, Maurice P. “The Nazis in Alsace and Lorraine.” Foreign Affairs, 21:1 (1942), pp. 168-173.


(三)學位論文

1.Marková, Žaneta. Les Prix Littéraires En France. Prague: Universitas Carolina in Prague, 2011.

(四)文學作品

1.Bayle, André. Des Jeux olympiques à la Waffen-SS. Paris: Lore, 2008.
2.Dupont, Pierre Henri. Au temps des choix héroïques. Paris: L’Homme Libre, 2002.
3.Gilles, Gilbert. Un ancien Waffen-SS français raconte…. Clearwater, FL: Gold Mail 15. International Publishing, 1989.
4.Gaultier, Léon Siegfried et le Berrichon. Le parcours d’un "collabo." Paris: Perrin, 1991.
5.Jean-Baptiste. Et j’ai cassé mon fusil. Paris: Laffont, 1974.
6.Labat, Eric. Les Places étaient chères. Paris: La Table Ronde, 1969.
7.Lobsiger, François. Un Suisse au service d’Hitler. Paris: Albatros, 1985.
8.Levast, Louis. Le Soleil se couchait à l’est. Paris: L’Homme Libre, 2008.
9.Mit, Serge. Carcasse à vendre. Paris: L’Homme Libre, 1950.
10.Malardier, Christian. Le Soldat traqué. Paris: La Pensée Moderne, 1971.
11.Philippet, Henri. Et mets ta robe de bal. Erpe, Belgium: De Krijger. 2 vols, 1999.
12.Clemons, Walter. “A Young Man’s Marriage to War.” In New York Times (18 Jan. 1971), p. 37.
13.Gray, Glenn. “A Survivor Born to Die.” In The New York Times Book Review (7 February 1971), pp. 4-5.

(五)網路資源

1.Charles de Gaulle. “Discours de l''Hôtel de Ville de Paris, 25 août 1944.” Charles-de-Gaulle.org (http://www.charles-de-gaulle.org/pages/l-homme/accueil/discours/pendant-la-guerre-1940-1946/discours-de-l-hotel-de-ville-de-paris-25-aout-1944.php),最後造訪2015.7.8。
2.Les Deux Magots - Café Littéraire. “Prix Deux Magots.“ Les Deux Magots (http://www.lesdeuxmagots.fr/fr/prix-deux-magots.php),最後造訪2015.6.13.。
3.Francois Hollande. “Discours du Président de la République à l''occasion du 70ème anniversaire de la rafle du Vel d’Hiv(2012.7.20).“ Présidence de la République (http://www.elysee.fr/declarations/article/discours-du-president-de-la-republique-a-l-occasion-du-70eme-anniversaire-de-la-rafle-du-vel-d-hiv/),最後造訪2015.6.30。 中譯演講內容請參考〈巴黎自行車冬賽館大獵捕事件:法國總統歐朗德演講全文(2012.8.24)〉,TEWA歐洲時事現場(https://m.facebook.com/321847293815/photos/a.10151177795563816.460265.321847293815/10151177795683816/?type=1&p=20),最後造訪2015.6.27。
4.J. A. Moad II. “War Literature Books – A List of Ninety-Nine and Then Some…(2013.9.11).” WLA Blog (http://wlajournal.com/blog/?p=848),最後造訪2015.5.23。
5.遊沛然,〈日本海外自衛隊員11年中54人回國後自殺〉,大紀元(http://gag-daily.com/ysearch/redir.php?cont=1&l=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.epochtimes.com%2Fb5%2F15%2F5%2F29%2Fn4445901.htm),最後造訪2015.6.20。


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