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研究生:王則翔
研究生(外文):Tse-Hsiang Wang
論文名稱:光學式足壓及足弓指數量測系統之開發與研究
論文名稱(外文):On the Development of the Optical Measurement System for Plantar Pressure and Arch Index
指導教授:張培仁
口試委員:胡毓忠施文彬林大偉
口試日期:2015-07-07
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:應用力學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:80
中文關鍵詞:光學式足壓量測系統足底壓力足弓指數數位影像處理灰階值
外文關鍵詞:optical plantar pressure measurementplantar pressurearch indeximage processinggray level
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
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量測足壓及足弓指數是生物力學研究中的重要項目,量測之結果可以用於預防及治療某些疾病如糖尿病、癱瘓等。目前臨床研究中主要使用的有幾種量測足壓的方式:拓印式,利用實驗者踩在橡膠軟墊上分辨壓力大小;另外一種方式是電學式的壓力感測器,透過電阻、電容之改變進行壓力量測。此外還有光學式的足壓量測系統,藉由使用光敏材料及軟性材質來量測足底壓力。光學式量測系統的開發成本雖然較電學式量測系統低,但在量測壓力值大小及準確性上還不如電學式且目前還需要額外使用增益結構幫助量測。因此本研究希望能夠透過灰階值分析的方式開發一套新的光學式足壓量測系統改善量測壓力大小值的問題,並且簡化製成。
本研究利用數位影像處理及影像擷取系統開發出一套新的光學式足壓及足弓指數量測系統。與現有使用光敏元件及軟性材質開發的光學式量測系統不同,該系統使用數位相機直接擷取足底影像,藉由數位影像處裡之技術進行灰階值分析並找出灰階值與壓力值之關係,進而得到足底壓力分布情況。此外,利用將足底影像分區的方式可以輕易量測出足弓指數。系統組成簡單且其人機介面可以幫助使用者同時將足底壓力分佈、足弓指數、足長、足寬等各種參數量測出來。此外本研究開發之量測系統可將量測出之資料保存起來,建立使用者資料庫,以便長期追蹤使用者之健康狀況,達到預防足部疾病的重要目的。


The Plantar pressure and arch index of patient for pathological analysis is an important issue in biomechanical field. The results can be used for preventing and treating some diseases like diabetes and paralysis. There were some used plantar pressure measurement methods in clinical research. Harris foot mat use rubber cushion to measure subject’s plantar pressure. Another method adopted electrical pressure sensors to measure the plantar pressure through the changes of electrical resistance and capacitance. In addition, optical system used photo or plastic sensing units to measure plantar pressure. Although the cost of optical measurement system was cheaper than the electric system, the capability of optical system for measuring pressure values performed worse than electric ones. Besides, the present optical system needs auxiliary structure to measure plantar pressure. This study tried to use gray level analysis to build a new system to improve the defect of measuring pressure values, and simplify process of system.
This work develops a new optical plantar pressure and arch index measurement system. Instead of the existing photo or plastic sensing units, the present system uses digital optical camera to capture the color change of bare foot standing. Use gray level transformation and image-processing techniques to establish a correlation relation between the plantar pressure and gray level. Furthermore, measuring the divided region surface of foot can easily get arch index. We can measure the pressure distribution, arch index, length, and width of foot through our system. The simple composition of system and interface can help operators to get plantar information of users more convenient than other used methods. Besides, the data measured by this system can be conserved though data base of users and could be applied for foot disease prevention in the future.


口試委員審定書 #
誌謝 i
摘要 ii
Abstract iii
目錄 v
圖目錄 ix
表目錄 xii
Chapter 1 緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 足壓生物力學之文獻回顧 3
1.2.1 足部解剖學介紹 3
1.2.2 動態足壓與靜態足壓之探討 5
1.2.3 足弓對足壓之影響 7
1.3 足壓量測系統之文獻回顧 7
1.3.1 足壓量測系統之探討 7
1.4 研究目的 14
Chapter 2 理論與原理 17
2.1 數位影像處理原理 17
2.1.1 影像分析原理 17
2.1.2 取樣與量化 18
2.1.3 RGB色彩空間與灰階影像 18
2.1.4 HSV色彩模型 19
2.2 形態學(morphology)處理 21
2.2.1 侵蝕(erosion)原理 21
2.2.2 膨脹(dilation)原理 22
2.2.3 斷開(opening)與閉合(closing) 23
2.3 影像分割 25
2.3.1 邊緣偵測 25
2.3.2 門檻值 27
2.3.3 Otsu門檻值 28
Chapter 3 足底壓力量測系統之硬體設計與開發 31
3.1 足壓量測系統之相機與鏡頭選擇 31
3.1.1 相機選擇 31
3.1.2 鏡頭選擇 33
3.1.3 相機架設計 35
3.2 足壓量測系統之主結構設計 36
3.2.1 主體結構設計及選材 36
3.2.2 強化玻璃之選擇 36
3.3 光源選擇 37
3.4 壓力感測器及記錄器選擇 40
3.5 暗房架設 44
Chapter 4 足壓量測系統之演算法設計開發 45
4.1 足底壓力之分佈狀態分析 45
4.1.1 足底影像分割原理 45
4.1.2 靜態足底壓力分佈說明 46
4.1.3 足底分區說明 47
4.1.4 分區面積計算 48
4.2 灰階值與壓力值 49
4.2.1 壓力值與灰階值之關係 49
4.2.2 平均灰階值 50
4.2.3 平均壓力值 50
4.2.4 壓力分佈計算 51
4.3 本系統之其他功能開發 52
4.3.1 足弓指數計算 52
4.3.2 足長與足寬之計算 53
4.3.3 雙足承受重量計算 54
4.4 實驗步驟 54
4.4.1 足底壓力量測 54
4.4.2 壓力值與灰階值之比例關係校正 55
4.4.3 演算法計算平均壓力值 56
4.4.4 足底壓力分佈計算 56
Chapter 5 結果與討論 57
5.1 壓力值量測 57
5.2 灰階值與壓力值之關係校正 59
5.3 演算法結果驗證 62
5.3.1 平均壓力值計算 62
5.3.2 足底壓力分佈計算 64
5.3.3 體重計算 64
5.3.4 足弓指數及足長足寬計算 66
5.3.5 實驗結果小結 66
5.4 演算法修正 68
5.4.1 平均壓力值修正 68
5.4.2 足底壓力分佈修正 70
5.4.3 體重計算修正 71
5.5 人機介面展示與規格比較 73
Chapter 6 結論與未來展望 75
6.1 結論 75
6.2 未來展望 75
參考文獻 77



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