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研究生:蘇惠英
研究生(外文):Wai-Ieng Sou
論文名稱:都巿固體廢棄物焚化底渣之管理決策分析-以澳門為例
論文名稱(外文):Decision Analysis of Bottom Ash Management in Macao
指導教授:闕蓓德闕蓓德引用關係
指導教授(外文):Pei-Te Chiueh
口試委員:馬鴻文駱尚廉
口試委員(外文):Hwong-wen MaShang-ling LO
口試日期:2014-07-06
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:環境工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:157
中文關鍵詞:底渣生命週期評估成本效益分析層級分析法澳門
外文關鍵詞:Bottom ashLife cycle assessmentCost-benefit analysisAnalytic hierarchy processMacao
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全球都巿化的趨勢下加速了都巿固體廢棄物的產生量,對於廢棄物的管理多數國家均以“焚化為主、掩埋為輔”作處理,然而底渣是焚化後所產生的的副產物,若沒有正確的處理,將會造成環境的第二次污染。尤其對於人口密度高及土地缺乏的國家這問題特別的嚴重。然而底渣當中含有對環境造成衝擊的污染物,因此開始有研究針對底渣處理進行生命週期評估的分析以找出底渣後續處理對環境所造成的衝擊與影響,從而制定出管理的方法及法規。
本研究利用生命週期永續性評估的概念對底渣的後續處理進行5種情境分析探討。先針對環境面作評估,以健康風險的思維結合在生命週期評估中的人體健康衝擊類別,利用CalTOX多介質多傳輸模式來得到人體毒性潛勢,從而填補生命週期評估中所欠缺考量之時間及地域上的不足;再對經濟面進行成本效益分析的探討;而社會面及法規面的評估則利用層級分析法中之語意變數作評量。並於最後利用專家問卷法將得到各評估準則(環境面、經濟面、社會面及法規面)的權重以簡單加權法作計算以得到一個底渣方案的優劣排序並提供決策者參考。
本案例分析以澳門作研究,其大多數資源均由外地進口,對於土地緊絀及資源缺乏的澳門,如何妥善處理底渣乃相當重要的課題,因此利用上述的研究方法以探討底渣的管理決策。案例中以5種情境作分析,情境0為底渣與建築廢棄物一併作掩埋(現況處理);情境1為底渣經前處理後取代瀝青混凝土中25%天然骨材作為路面鋪設的原料;情境2為底渣經前處理後取代水泥混凝土中25%天然骨材作為路面鋪設的原料;情境3為底渣經前處理後取代水泥混凝土中25%水泥作為路面鋪設的原料;情境4為底渣經前處理後運輸至中國與都巿固體廢棄物一併作掩埋處理。
綜合上述研究方法經量化之結果排序為情境3>情境0>情境2>情境1>情境4,可看出底渣再利用情境中情境3為最佳之情境設定,由於此情境的成品產量最多,在經濟面上的效益非常的高,進而導致此結果。然而透過健康風險與生命週期評估作結合並針對4個關切污染物(鎘、鉻、砷及鉛)的評估結果可看出,地域及受體參數是相當重要的因子。由此可知,本土化的評估有其重要的意義,並同時結合其他的評估準則去探討同個決策,綜合不同面向來進行分析才能得到一個較全面考量的結果。本研究針對底渣的管理作分析,研究架構亦可應用於其他的環境議題上,以幫助澳門建立出一個較完整的環境管理架構。

Bottom ash is a byproduct of municipal solid waste incineration, which has become an increasingly important issue as urbanization increases waste generation, particularly in countries where population density is high and land is scarce. Bottom ash contains environmental pollutants, instigating research into analysis of its life cycle assessment, to seek treatments which prevent further environmental harm, in order to develop better management approaches and regulation.
The research employs the concept of life cycle sustainability assessment to analyze bottom ash treatment in five scenarios. Life cycle assessment, CalTOX (a multi-media transport model), cost-benefit analysis, and analytical hierarchy process are used to evaluate the five scenarios regarding environmental, social, and economic aspects.
In the case study of bottom ash treatment in Macao, five scenarios were used for analysis, scenario 0: bottom ash and construction waste are buried together (current status); scenario 1: pretreated bottom ash is used to replace 25% of natural aggregate portion in asphalt concrete; scenario 2: pretreated bottom ash is used to replace 25% of natural aggregate in cement concrete; scenario 3: pretreated bottom ash is used to replace 25% of cement in cement concrete; scenario 4: pretreated bottom ash is sent to China and blended with municipal solid waste for landfill.
A comprehensive results of the aforementioned quantitative approach reveals the following ranking: scenario 3 > 0 > 2 > 1 > 4. It can thus be seen that scenario 3 boasts the best conditions for bottom ash recycling, because output is the highest and it brings highest economic benefits. Nevertheless, the test results of the four target pollutants (Cd, Cr, As, Pb) indicate that regional and receptor parameters are very important determiners. It can be concluded that regional assessment is of great significance; a more comprehensive consideration can be obtained by other assessment criteria and different analytic aspects. Apart from this research, which involves the analysis of bottom ash management, the same research framework can be applied into different environmental issues to forge a more integrated environmental management structure in Macao.

中文摘要 I
Abstract………………………………………………………………………………III
目錄 V
圖目錄 VII
表目錄 IX
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 研究目的 2
1.3 研究內容與架構 4
第二章 文獻回顧 6
2.1 都巿固體廢棄物特性及危害 6
2.1.1 廢棄物之物理特性 6
2.1.2 廢棄物之化學特性 7
2.1.3 廢棄物之危害性 7
2.2 國外都巿固體廢棄物處理及管理 8
2.2.1 中國 9
2.2.2 台灣 10
2.2.3 日本 11
2.2.4 美國 14
2.3 焚化底渣特性與危害 15
2.3.1 底渣之物理特性 15
2.3.2 底渣之化學特性 16
2.4 國外焚化底渣再利用管理 17
2.5 生命週期評估 20
2.5.1 底渣之生命週期評估 22
2.6 健康風險評估 24
2.7 多介質傳輸模式 28
2.7.1 多介質傳輸模式之發展歷程 28
2.7.2 CalTOX多介質多傳輸模式 29
2.7.3 底渣之健康風險評估 32
2.8 成本效益分析 36
2.8.1 底渣之成本效益分析 37
2.9 層級分析法 39
2.9.1 底渣之層級分析 40
第三章 研究方法 43
3.1 研究流程 44
3.2 生命週期評估 45
3.3 健康風險評估 48
3.4 生命週期評估結合健康風險評估 49
3.5 CalTOX模式之人體毒性潛勢法 53
3.6 成本效益分析 55
3.7 層級分析法 55
第四章 案例研究結果與討論 58
4.1 案例背景 58
4.1.1 澳門都巿固體廢棄物處理歷程 61
4.1.2 澳門都巿固體廢棄物處理流程 62
4.1.3 澳門廢棄物分類 65
4.1.4 澳門廢棄物之物理特性 67
4.2 確立研究目標及範疇界定 68
4.2.1 系統邊界 69
4.2.2 功能單位 74
4.2.3 確立評估限制及假設 74
4.3 廢棄物及焚化底渣盤查分析 75
4.3.1 廢棄物盤查分析 75
4.3.2 焚化底渣盤查分析 75
4.4 廢棄物生命週期分析 77
4.5 焚化底渣生命週期分析 83
4.6 焚化底渣之人體毒性潛勢 92
4.7 焚化底渣生命週期評估之人體健康衝擊與健康風險評估之人體毒性潛勢比較 100
4.8 焚化底渣之成本效益分析 103
4.9 焚化底渣之層級分析法 114
5.1 結論 120
5.2 建議 122
參考文獻 123
附錄 133
附錄A 廢棄物生命週期評估盤查清單 133
附錄B 焚化底渣生命週期評估盤查清單 137
附錄C CalTOX參數 143
附錄D 各情境成本效益估算因子 144
附錄E AHP專家問卷 - 一般廢棄物焚化底渣管理決策分析 148




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楊媛、吳清仁、曹旗、吳

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