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研究生:劉永渝
研究生(外文):Yung-Yu Liu
論文名稱:不同消毒方法對游泳池池水中消毒副產物前質影響之研究
論文名稱(外文):Potential effects of different disinfection methods on disinfection byproducts (DBPs) formation in swimming pool water
指導教授:王根樹王根樹引用關係
指導教授(外文):Gen-Shuh Wang
口試委員:林財富童心欣
口試委員(外文):Tsair-Fuh LinHsin-hsin Tung
口試日期:2015-07-29
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:環境衛生研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:公共衛生學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:英文
論文頁數:91
中文關鍵詞:游泳池消毒副產物不同消毒方法臭氧
外文關鍵詞:Swimming poolsdisinfection byproducts (DBPs)disinfection methodsozone treatment
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由於國人日益重視休閒及運動生活,游泳池之設置及泳客人數逐年增加。為了達到抑制微生物生長的目的並避免疾病傳播,游泳池會使用特定消毒方式保障水質安全,然而在消毒的過程中,卻可能伴隨消毒副產物的生成。此主要起因於游泳池池水中可能含有來自水源或泳客釋放之有機物質,當這些有機物質遇到消毒所使用的消毒劑,就可能產生化學反應導致消毒副產物的生成。在先前文獻已有指出暴露到消毒副產物可能會導致對人體健康的危害,因此了解游泳池池水中消毒副產物生成的特性,並對現有消毒方法對消毒副產物的影響進行探討是必要的。
本研究進行之目的即是為了了解當游泳池所使用的消毒方法(加氯消毒及臭氧搭配加氯消毒)不同時,其對游泳池池水中消毒副產物生成特性所造成的潛在影響,並且藉由實驗室模擬的方式進一步探討臭氧在游泳池池水消毒系統中對於水質參數及水中各類消毒副產物生成濃度的影響。
整個研究包含兩大部分,第一部分為12座游泳池池水之採樣,目的是為了瞭解目前台北地區游泳池水中各類消毒副產物濃度的實際情形,並評估實場操作的相關因素對於水質參數與消毒副產物生成情形的影響;第二部分為實驗室模擬,主要是透過控制不同實驗條件和相關參數,例如:臭氧濃度及接觸時間,以深入地探討臭氧在游泳池消毒系統中所造成的影響和其對於水質參數和消毒副產物生成情形的效應。
在環境採樣的部分,研究結果發現游泳池水中有機碳的濃度為台北地區自來水的二至五倍,此外七月份採樣由於泳池使用人數較多,所以出現較高濃度的總有機碳。而在不同的消毒方法對消毒副產物影響的部分,實場採樣結果顯示對於三鹵甲烷的生成而言,兩種消毒方式並無顯著影響,但臭氧搭配加氯消毒卻能有效降低游泳池水中鹵乙酸的濃度。

而在實驗室模擬的部分,臭氧加氯對於控制傳統消毒副產物如三鹵甲烷以及鹵乙酸的生成均有顯著效果,可是本研究結果卻也顯示游泳池水樣在經過臭氧搭配加氯處理後新興消毒副產物鹵酮類的生成增加。


Swimming is one of the most popular sports around the world. Due to the presences of the rich organic substances and the microorganisms in swimming pools which could pose potential threats to swimmers, disinfection of the pool water is indeed essential for the better quality of the pool water.
Chlorine and ozone/chlorine are the two most commonly used disinfection methods in swimming pools of Taipei. Somehow, such disinfectants would react with organic matters in the pools to form numerous disinfection byproducts (DBPs) including trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), haloacetonitriles (HANs), haloketones (HKs) and so on. These DBPs have been proven to lead to tumor formations of liver and kidney in animal studies and might be harmful to human health. Thus, it is necessary to assess the occurrences of DBPs and the effect of existed disinfection methods in swimming pools.
The aims of this study are to evaluate the occurrences of various DBPs in swimming pool in Taipei and assess the potential effects of different disinfection technologies especially the role of ozone on the formations of various DBPs in swimming pools. This study comprised of both field sampling and laboratory simulations.

Results of field sampling showed that there was a significant variation in the concentrations of TOC, TDN and THMs in pool water. Besides, there are also some differences between the pools treated with ozone/chlorine and chlorine. The results show that pools with ozone/chlorine disinfection have lower concentrations of HAAs, whereas it was surprisingly to find that higher concentrations of nitrogen-based DBPs such as HANs and HKs were also observed, which were reported to be more hazardous to human health than the carbonaceous DBPs.
On the other hands, laboratory scale experiments were used to simulate the effects of ozone/chlorine and chlorine treatments for swimming pool water on DBPs formation. The results indicated that the effects of pre-ozone treatment on the occurrences of DBPs in pool water including the reductions of THMs and HAAs and potential increase of the concentrations of HKs.


中文摘要 I
Abstract III
Content V
List of Tables VII
List of Figures VIII
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Research Background 1
1.2 Objectives 3
1.2.1 Study aims 3
1.2.2Research framework 4
Chapter 2 Literature review 5
2.1 Disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in swimming pools 5
2.1.1 Trihalomethanes (THMs) 5
2.1.2 Haloacetic acids (HAAs) 6
2.1.3 Haloacetonenitriles (HANs) 7
2.1.4 Haloketones (HKs) 8
2.2 Factors affect the occurrence of DBPs in swimming pool 9
2.2.1 Organic precursors 9
2.2.2 Temperature 10
2.2.3 Disinfection methods 11
2.2.4 pH values 13
2.2.5 Pool types (indoor/outdoor) 13
2.2.6 Pool maintenances 14
2.3 Exposure and risk assessment of DBPs in swimming pool 17
2.4 Regulations of DBPs in swimming pools 20
2.5 Regulations related to DBPs of swimming pools in Taipei 21
Chapter 3 Material and Methods 22
3.1 Sampling sites and sampling strategy 22
3.1.1 Sampling sites 22
3.1.2 Sampling strategy 24
3.2 Simulations of swimming pools disinfection system 26
3.3 Analytical methods 29
3.3.1 Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) analysis 29
3.3.2 Organic and inorganic nitrogenous species 30
3.2.3 Disinfection Byproducts Analysis 35
3.2.4 Concentration of Ozone analysis 41
Chapter 4 Results and Discussion 44
4.1 Occurrences of DBPs in swimming pools water: seasonal variations for all of the swimming pools 44
4.1.1 Water quality parameters of indoor swimming pools water 44
4.1.2 Occurrences of DBPs in swimming pools 48
4.1.3 DBPFPs tests of swimming pools water 53
4.2 Comparisons of the occurrences and characteristics of DBPs in swimming pools with different disinfection methods 56
4.2.1 Water quality parameters 56
4.2.2 Occurrences of DBPs 59
4.3 Simulations of swimming pool disinfection process 68
4.3.1 Conditions of simulation experiments 69
4.3.2 Occurrences of DBPs after ozonation 71
4.4 The effects of pool operations and maintenances 79
Chapter 5 Conclusion and Implications 83
5.1 Conclusion 83
5.2 Implications and Suggestions 85
5.3Limitations 86
References 87


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