跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.236.84.188) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/08/02 21:46
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:吳振豪
研究生(外文):Chen-Hao Wu
論文名稱:右弓狀束於思覺失調症的遺傳與功能性相關之研究
論文名稱(外文):Heredity and functional association of the right arcuate fasciculus in schizophrenia
指導教授:陳中明陳中明引用關係曾文毅曾文毅引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chung-Ming ChenWen-Yih Isaac Tseng
口試委員:黃宗正謝仁俊吳育德
口試委員(外文):Tzung-Jeng HwangJen-Chuen HsiehYu-Te Wu
口試日期:2015-07-07
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:醫學工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:綜合工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:英文
論文頁數:101
中文關鍵詞:思覺失調症內表型特徵性指標擴散頻譜造影神經纖維追蹤術功能性磁振造影
外文關鍵詞:schizophreniaendophenotypetrait markerdiffusion spectrum imagingtractographyfunctional MRI
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:345
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
特徵性指標有助於將不同的表現型區分成明確的子類型,並提供較有效率的途徑來發現該疾病的遺傳基礎。近期有關擴散磁振造影的研究,已提出白質微結構的完整度可當作思覺失調症的特徵性指標。雖然測量白質微結構完整度較佳的方法是以神經纖維追蹤術為基礎的分析,但手動的神經纖維追蹤術易受操作者影響,且當要分析大量白質束時,是非常耗時的。
在這篇研究,我們嘗試運用新的大腦神經連結自動分析方法,來找出思覺失調症的特徵性指標。我們分析一群思覺失調症患者、未發病手足與健康正常人的白質纖維束。結果發現右弓狀束的白質完整度,在患者與未發病手足,皆可觀察到顯著且呈等級的異常。我們認為,右弓狀束可能是思覺失調症的候選特徵性指標,且在建立基因型與表現型之間的關聯上,有其潛在價值。
雖然發現右弓狀束是思覺失調症的候選特徵性指標,但此白質束的結構與功能是如何改變、這些改變相互間有何關聯、以及這些改變又如何與精神病的症狀有關是不清楚的。因此,我們進行一個結合擴散磁振造影與功能性磁振造影的研究,來釐清右弓狀束的結構與功能間的關係。在我們的分析結果發現,右弓狀束的白質完整度與其相對應的功能性側化有顯著的正相關。當與臨床症狀做關聯時,右弓狀束的白質完整度以及其相對應的功能性側化皆與妄想/幻覺構面的分數呈負相關。此結果認為,右弓狀束白質結構的受損程度與其相對應的功能性側化的降低是有關的,而這兩者的改變可能會加重思覺失調症的言語性幻聽。
總結來說,這些結果呈現出右弓狀束的遺傳特性,也說明它與特定的臨床表型有關之結構與功能的複雜關係,認為右弓狀束是一個可用來篩選有關思覺失調症的基因以及早期辨識思覺失調症的特徵性指標。

Trait markers aid in the separation of heterogeneous phenotypes into distinct subtypes and provide more efficient routes for the discovery of the genetic underpinnings of disease. Recent diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) research has proposed that the microstructural integrity of white matter is a trait marker for schizophrenia. Although tractography-based analysis is a better approach for measuring the microstructural integrity of white matter, manual tractography is operator-dependent and extremely time-consuming if a large number of tracts are to be analyzed.
In this study, we sought to identify the trait markers of schizophrenia using a novel, automatic tractography-based analysis method. We analyzed tract integrities in a cohort of schizophrenic patients, unaffected siblings and healthy controls. We found that the white matter integrity of the right arcuate fasciculus was significantly impaired in both unaffected siblings and schizophrenic patients in a predictable, graded pattern. Our results suggest that the right arcuate fasciculus is a candidate trait marker and could be valuable for establishing links between genetic liabilities and specific clinical phenotypes.
Although the right arcuate fasciculus was identified as a candidate trait marker of schizophrenia, it is unclear how the structure and function of the white matter tract is altered, how these alterations are related to each other, and how these alterations are associated with psychotic symptoms. To address these questions, we conducted a study combining diffusion MRI and functional MRI to identify the relationships between structure and function in the right arcuate fasciculus. A positive correlation was found between the microstructural integrity of the right arcuate fasciculus and the corresponding functional lateralization. When correlated with clinical symptoms, both the microstructural integrity of the right arcuate fasciculus and the corresponding functional lateralization were negatively correlated with the delusion/hallucination dimension scores. Our results suggest that the impaired structural integrity of the right arcuate fasciculus is related to a reduction in the corresponding functional lateralization and that these alterations might aggravate auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia.
In summary, these results demonstrate the hereditary traits of the right arcuate fasciculus and reveal its complex structure-function relationships in relation to specific clinical phenotypes, suggesting that the right arcuate fasciculus is a trait marker that could be useful in screening for schizophrenia-related genes and in the early diagnosis of schizophrenia.

口試委員會審定書 ………………………………………………………………… i
誌謝 ………………………………………………………………………………… ii
中文摘要 ………………………………………………………………………… iii
Abstract …………………………………………………………………………… iv
Chapter 1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………… 1
1.1 Background …………………………………………………………………… 1
1.1.1 Endophenotypic approach …………………………………………… 1
1.1.2 White matter integrity as a candidate trait marker …………………… 4
1.1.3 Structure-function relationships in schizophrenia …………………… 6
1.2 Motivation and purpose …………………………………………………… 8
1.2.1 Limitation of prior research …………………………………………… 8
1.2.2 Recommendations from prior research ……………………………… 9
1.2.3 Strategies for Solving Problems …………………………………… 10
1.3 Outline …………………………………………………………………… 11
Chapter 2 Methods of diffusion spectrum imaging and tractography-based automatic analysis …………………………………………………… 13
2.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………… 13
2.2 Diffusion MRI and diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) …………………… 14
2.3 MRI data acquisition ……………………………………………………… 16
2.4 DSI data reconstruction …………………………………………………… 18
2.5 DSI tractography …………………………………………………………… 18
2.6 Tract-specific analysis ……………………………………………………… 19
2.7 Tractography-based automatic analysis (TBAA) ………………………… 20
2.7.1 Progress in tractography-based analysis …………………………… 20
2.7.2 Two key developments in TBAA …………………………………… 21
2.7.2.1 Whole-brain white matter tract atlas ……………………… 22
2.7.2.2 A novel strategy for registering DSI datasets ………………… 28
2.7.3 TBAA procedures …………………………………………………… 31
Chapter 3 Discovery of the trait marker of schizophrenia using tractography-based automatic analysis …………………………………………………… 35
3.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………… 35
3.1.1 Purpose ……………………………………………………………… 35
3.2 Methods …………………………………………………………………… 36
3.2.1 Participants ………………………………………………………… 36
3.2.2 TBAA ………………………………………………………………… 38
3.2.3 Statistical analyses …………………………………………………… 38
3.3 Results ……………………………………………………………………… 39
3.3.1 Demographic features ……………………………………………… 39
3.3.2 Integrity of the white matter tracts …………………………………… 40
3.3.3 Results of post-hoc analyses ……………………………………… 43
3.3.4 Correlations with clinical parameters in the patients …………… 44
Chapter 4 Identification of structure-function relationships ……………… 47
4.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………… 47
4.1.1 Structural and functional alterations of the language network …… 47
4.1.2 Motivation ………………………………………………………… 49
4.1.3 Purpose …………………………………………………………… 49
4.2 Methods ………………………………………………………………… 50
4.2.1 Participants ………………………………………………………… 50
4.2.2 Functional MRI ……………………………………………………… 50
4.2.3 Data analysis ………………………………………………………… 51
4.2.3.1 DSI tractography and tract integrity analysis …………… 51
4.2.3.2 Functional MRI data analysis ……………………………… 54
4.2.3.3 Lateralization indices ………………………………………… 57
4.2.3.4 Statistical analysis …………………………………………… 57
4.3 Results ……………………………………………………………………… 58
4.3.1 Demographic features and clinical symptoms ……………………… 58
4.3.2 Functional MRI data ………………………………………………… 60
4.3.3 DSI and functional MRI measures ………………………………… 63
4.3.4 Structural and functional lateralization indices …………………… 64
4.3.5 Associations between lateralization indices and structural/functional counterparts ………………………………………………………… 64
4.3.6 Associations of delusion/hallucination with dorsal functional LI and right dorsal GFA ………………………………………………………… 66
Chapter 5 Discussion and conclusion …………………………………………… 67
5.1 TBAA ……………………………………………………………………… 67
5.2 Discovery of the trait marker of schizophrenia using TBAA ……………… 68
5.2.1 Ten tracts with significant integrity differences ……………………… 68
5.2.2 Right arcuate fasciculus as a candidate trait marker ………………… 68
5.2.3 The other nine tracts ……………………………………………… 70
5.2.4 Limitations ………………………………………………………… 71
5.2.5 Brief summary ……………………………………………………… 72
5.3 Identification of structure-function relationships ………………………… 73
5.3.1 Structure-function relationships in the right arcuate fasciculus …… 73
5.3.2 Associations with auditory verbal hallucination ……………………… 74
5.3.3 Limitations …………………………………………………………… 75
5.3.4 Brief summary ……………………………………………………… 76
5.4 Conclusion ………………………………………………………………… 77
5.5 Future works ……………………………………………………………… 78
5.5.1 Association analysis of the trait marker and candidate genes ……… 78
5.5.2 Validating the trait marker of schizophrenia by a study of first‐episode patients …………………………………………………………… 79
5.5.3 Using GFA profiles to search for local abnormalities ……………… 80
References ………………………………………………………………………… 81
Appendix …………………………………………………………………………… 99
Honors…………………………………………………………………… 99
Publications …………………………………………………………… 101

List of figures
Figure 2.7.3-1 Step 1 of TBAA …………………………………………………… 31
Figure 2.7.3-2 Step 2 of TBAA …………………………………………………… 32
Figure 2.7.3-3 Step 3 of TBAA …………………………………………………… 32
Figure 2.7.3-4 Step 4 of TBAA …………………………………………………… 32
Figure 2.7.3-5 Step 5 of TBAA …………………………………………………… 33
Figure 2.7.3-6 Step 6 of TBAA …………………………………………………… 33
Figure 3.3.2 Three-dimensional fiber tracking of the ten tracts ………………… 41
Figure 4.2.3.1 Three-dimensional tractography renderings visualizing the spatial orientation of the dorsal and ventral pathways …………………………… 54
Figure 4.2.3.2 Functional activation maps of dorsal and ventral pathways in patients with schizophrenia ………………………………………………………… 56
Figure 4.3.5 Partial correlation between the dorsal functional LI and right dorsal GFA in patients with schizophrenia ……………………………………………… 65

List of tables
Table 2.7.2.1 List of the 74 white matter tracts …………………………………… 23
Table 3.3.1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of study groups …………… 40
Table 3.3.2 Comparisons of the mean GFA values of the white matter tracts of the three groups (patients, siblings, and controls) ………………………… 43
Table 3.3.4 Relationships between the mean GFA values of the white matter tracts and the PANSS positive and negative symptom scores of the schizophrenia patients …………………………………………………………………… 46
Table 4.3.1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with schizophrenia and healthy control subjects ……………………………………………… 60
Table 4.3.2 Brain regions of activation for the contrast of the related versus baseline conditions ………………………………………………………………… 62
Table 4.3.3 Mean generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA) of fiber tracts and total β-values of the functional MRI semantic task …………………………… 63


References

Addington AM, Gornick MC, Shaw P, Seal J, Gogtay N, Greenstein D, Clasen L, Coffey M, Gochman P, Long R, Rapoport JL. (2007): Neuregulin 1 (8p12) and childhood-onset schizophrenia: susceptibility haplotypes for diagnosis and brain developmental trajectories. Mol Psychiatry 12:195-205.
Agartz I, Andersson JL, Skare S. (2001): Abnormal brain white matter in schizophrenia: a diffusion tensor imaging study. Neuroreport 12:2251-2254.
Allen AJ, Griss ME, Folley BS, Hawkins KA, Pearlson GD. (2009): Endophenotypes in schizophrenia: a selective review. Schizophr Res 109:24-37.
Allen P, Laroi F, McGuire PK, Aleman A. (2008): The hallucinating brain: a review of structural and functional neuroimaging studies of hallucinations. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 32:175-191.
Amaro E, Jr., Barker GJ. (2006): Study design in fMRI: basic principles. Brain Cogn 60:220-232.
Anderson JE, Wible CG, McCarley RW, Jakab M, Kasai K, Shenton ME. (2002): An MRI study of temporal lobe abnormalities and negative symptoms in chronic schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 58:123-134.
Anderson JS. (2008): Origin of synchronized low-frequency blood oxygen level-dependent fluctuations in the primary visual cortex. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 29:1722-1729.
Andreasen NC, Pressler M, Nopoulos P, Miller D, Ho BC. (2010): Antipsychotic dose equivalents and dose-years: a standardized method for comparing exposure to different drugs. Biol Psychiatry 67:255-262.
Ashburner J, Friston KJ. (2005): Unified segmentation. Neuroimage 26:839-851.
Basser PJ. (2002): Relationships between diffusion tensor and q-space MRI. Magn Reson Med 47:392-397.
Basser PJ, Mattiello J, LeBihan D. (1994): Estimation of the effective self-diffusion tensor from the NMR spin echo. J Magn Reson B 103:247-254.
Basser PJ, Pajevic S, Pierpaoli C, Duda J, Aldroubi A. (2000): In vivo fiber tractography using DT-MRI data. Magn Reson Med 44:625-632.
Beedie SA, Benson PJ, St Clair DM. (2011): Atypical scanpaths in schizophrenia: evidence of a trait- or state-dependent phenomenon? J Psychiatry Neurosci 36:150-164.
Belforte JE, Zsiros V, Sklar ER, Jiang Z, Yu G, Li Y, Quinlan EM, Nakazawa K. (2010): Postnatal NMDA receptor ablation in corticolimbic interneurons confers schizophrenia-like phenotypes. Nat Neurosci 13:76-83.
Benetti S, Pettersson-Yeo W, Allen P, Catani M, Williams S, Barsaglini A, Kambeitz-Ilankovic LM, McGuire P, Mechelli A. (2013): Auditory Verbal Hallucinations and Brain Dysconnectivity in the Perisylvian Language Network: A Multimodal Investigation. Schizophr Bull.
Benjamini Y. (2010): Discovering the false discovery rate. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B 72:405-416.
Bergen SE, Petryshen TL. (2012): Genome-wide association studies of schizophrenia: does bigger lead to better results? Curr Opin Psychiatry 25:76-82.
Boos HB, Mandl RC, van Haren NE, Cahn W, van Baal GC, Kahn RS, Hulshoff Pol HE. (2013): Tract-based diffusion tensor imaging in patients with schizophrenia and their non-psychotic siblings. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 23:295-304.
Borowsky R, Cummine J, Owen WJ, Friesen CK, Shih F, Sarty GE. (2006): FMRI of ventral and dorsal processing streams in basic reading processes: insular sensitivity to phonology. Brain Topogr 18:233-239.
Brambilla P, Cerini R, Gasparini A, Versace A, Andreone N, Vittorini E, Barbui C, Pelizza L, Nose M, Barlocco L, Marrella G, Gregis M, Tournikioti K, David AS, Keshavan MS, Tansella M. (2005): Investigation of corpus callosum in schizophrenia with diffusion imaging. Schizophr Res 79:201-210.
Broca P. (1861): Remarques sur le siege de la faculté du langage articulé Bulletin de la Societé Anatomique de Paris 6:343-345.
Brunelin J, d''Amato T, van Os J, Cochet A, Suaud-Chagny MF, Saoud M. (2008): Effects of acute metabolic stress on the dopaminergic and pituitary-adrenal axis activity in patients with schizophrenia, their unaffected siblings and controls. Schizophr Res 100:206-211.
Buchsbaum MS, Tang CY, Peled S, Gudbjartsson H, Lu D, Hazlett EA, Downhill J, Haznedar M, Fallon JH, Atlas SW. (1998): MRI white matter diffusion anisotropy and PET metabolic rate in schizophrenia. Neuroreport 9:425-430.
Bullmore E, Sporns O. (2009): Complex brain networks: graph theoretical analysis of structural and functional systems. Nat Rev Neurosci 10:186-198.
Burock MA, Buckner RL, Woldorff MG, Rosen BR, Dale AM. (1998): Randomized event-related experimental designs allow for extremely rapid presentation rates using functional MRI. Neuroreport 9:3735-3739.
Butler PD, Hoptman MJ, Nierenberg J, Foxe JJ, Javitt DC, Lim KO. (2006): Visual white matter integrity in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 163:2011-2013.
Cabral J, Hugues E, Kringelbach ML, Deco G. (2012): Modeling the outcome of structural disconnection on resting-state functional connectivity. Neuroimage 62:1342-1353.
Callaghan PT, Coy A, MacGowan D, Packer KJ, Zelaya FO. (1991): Diffraction-like effects in NMR diffusion studies of fluids in porous solids. Nature 351:467-469.
Camchong J, Lim KO, Sponheim SR, Macdonald AW. (2009): Frontal white matter integrity as an endophenotype for schizophrenia: diffusion tensor imaging in monozygotic twins and patients'' nonpsychotic relatives. Front Hum Neurosci 3:35.
Catani M, Craig MC, Forkel SJ, Kanaan R, Picchioni M, Toulopoulou T, Shergill S, Williams S, Murphy DG, McGuire P. (2011): Altered integrity of perisylvian language pathways in schizophrenia: relationship to auditory hallucinations. Biol Psychiatry 70:1143-1150.
Catani M, Jones DK, ffytche DH. (2005): Perisylvian language networks of the human brain. Ann Neurol 57:8-16.
Ceaser AE, Goldberg TE, Egan MF, McMahon RP, Weinberger DR, Gold JM. (2008): Set-shifting ability and schizophrenia: a marker of clinical illness or an intermediate phenotype? Biol Psychiatry 64:782-788.
Chen WJ, Liu SK, Chang CJ, Lien YJ, Chang YH, Hwu HG. (1998): Sustained attention deficit and schizotypal personality features in nonpsychotic relatives of schizophrenic patients. Am J Psychiatry 155:1214-1220.
Chen Y, Bidwell LC, Norton D. (2006): Trait vs. State Markers for Schizophrenia: Identification and Characterization through Visual Processes. Curr Psychiatry Rev 2:431-438.
Chen YJ, Hsu YC, Lo YC, Tseng WY. 2014. Validation of a tract-based automatic analysis by comparison with manual tractography. 22th Scientific Meeting & Exhibition, International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Milan, Italy, May 10-16, 2014.
Chiang WY, Wang HL, Huang SC, Yeh FC, Tseng WYI. (2007): Tract-specific analysis of human white matter: mean-path based method. In proceedings of the16th Triennial Conference for the International Society of Magnetic Resonance., October 14-19, Kenting, Taiwan.
Chou T-L, Chen C-W, Wu M-Y, Booth JR. (2009): The role of inferior frontal gyrus and inferior parietal lobule in semantic processing of Chinese characters. Experimental brain research 198:465-475.
Cocchi L, Harding IH, Lord A, Pantelis C, Yucel M, Zalesky A. (2014): Disruption of structure-function coupling in the schizophrenia connectome. Neuroimage Clin 4:779-787.
Craddock N, O''Donovan MC, Owen MJ. (2006): Genes for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder? Implications for psychiatric nosology. Schizophr Bull 32:9-16.
Das TK, Abeyasinghe PM, Crone JS, Sosnowski A, Laureys S, Owen AM, Soddu A. (2014): Highlighting the structure-function relationship of the brain with the Ising model and graph theory. Biomed Res Int 2014:237898.
de Weijer AD, Mandl RC, Diederen KM, Neggers SF, Kahn RS, Hulshoff Pol HE, Sommer IE. (2011): Microstructural alterations of the arcuate fasciculus in schizophrenia patients with frequent auditory verbal hallucinations. Schizophr Res 130:68-77.
de Weijer AD, Neggers SF, Diederen KM, Mandl RC, Kahn RS, Hulshoff Pol HE, Sommer IE. (2013): Aberrations in the arcuate fasciculus are associated with auditory verbal hallucinations in psychotic and in non-psychotic individuals. Hum Brain Mapp 34:626-634.
Downhill JE, Jr., Buchsbaum MS, Wei T, Spiegel-Cohen J, Hazlett EA, Haznedar MM, Silverman J, Siever LJ. (2000): Shape and size of the corpus callosum in schizophrenia and schizotypal personality disorder. Schizophr Res 42:193-208.
Escudero I, Johnstone M. (2014): Genetics of schizophrenia. Curr Psychiatry Rep 16:502.
Fernandez-Miranda JC, Rhoton AL, Jr., Alvarez-Linera J, Kakizawa Y, Choi C, de Oliveira EP. (2008): Three-dimensional microsurgical and tractographic anatomy of the white matter of the human brain. Neurosurgery 62:989-1026; discussion 1026-1028.
Filbey FM, Toulopoulou T, Morris RG, McDonald C, Bramon E, Walshe M, Murray RM. (2008): Selective attention deficits reflect increased genetic vulnerability to schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 101:169-175.
Frank LR. (2001): Anisotropy in high angular resolution diffusion-weighted MRI. Magn Reson Med 45:935-939.
Frese FJ, 3rd, Knight EL, Saks E. (2009): Recovery from schizophrenia: with views of psychiatrists, psychologists, and others diagnosed with this disorder. Schizophr Bull 35:370-380.
Friman O, Farneback G, Westin CF. (2006): A Bayesian approach for stochastic white matter tractography. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 25:965-978.
Fritzsche KH, Laun FB, Meinzer HP, Stieltjes B. (2010): Opportunities and pitfalls in the quantification of fiber integrity: what can we gain from Q-ball imaging? Neuroimage 51:242-251.
Glasser MF, Rilling JK. (2008): DTI tractography of the human brain''s language pathways. Cereb Cortex 18:2471-2482.
Goghari VM, Smith GN, Honer WG, Kopala LC, Thornton AE, Su W, Macewan GW, Lang DJ. (2013): Effects of eight weeks of atypical antipsychotic treatment on middle frontal thickness in drug-naive first-episode psychosis patients. Schizophr Res 149:149-155.
Gorczewski K, Mang S, Klose U. (2009): Reproducibility and consistency of evaluation techniques for HARDI data. MAGMA 22:63-70.
Gottesman, II, Gould TD. (2003): The endophenotype concept in psychiatry: etymology and strategic intentions. Am J Psychiatry 160:636-645.
Gouzoulis-Mayfrank E, Voss T, Morth D, Thelen B, Spitzer M, Meincke U. (2003): Semantic hyperpriming in thought-disordered patients with schizophrenia: state or trait?--a longitudinal investigation. Schizophr Res 65:65-73.
Greenwood TA, Braff DL, Light GA, Cadenhead KS, Calkins ME, Dobie DJ, Freedman R, Green MF, Gur RE, Gur RC, Mintz J, Nuechterlein KH, Olincy A, Radant AD, Seidman LJ, Siever LJ, Silverman JM, Stone WS, Swerdlow NR, Tsuang DW, Tsuang MT, Turetsky BI, Schork NJ. (2007): Initial heritability analyses of endophenotypic measures for schizophrenia: the consortium on the genetics of schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 64:1242-1250.
Groom MJ, Jackson GM, Calton TG, Andrews HK, Bates AT, Liddle PF, Hollis C. (2008): Cognitive deficits in early-onset schizophrenia spectrum patients and their non-psychotic siblings: a comparison with ADHD. Schizophr Res 99:85-95.
Hakak Y, Walker JR, Li C, Wong WH, Davis KL, Buxbaum JD, Haroutunian V, Fienberg AA. (2001): Genome-wide expression analysis reveals dysregulation of myelination-related genes in chronic schizophrenia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:4746-4751.
Hao Y, Yan Q, Liu H, Xu L, Xue Z, Song X, Kaneko Y, Jiang T, Liu Z, Shan B. (2009): Schizophrenia patients and their healthy siblings share disruption of white matter integrity in the left prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus but not the anterior cingulate cortex. Schizophr Res 114:128-135.
Hass J, Walton E, Kirsten H, Liu J, Priebe L, Wolf C, Karbalai N, Gollub R, White T, Roessner V, Muller KU, Paus T, Smolka MN, Schumann G, Scholz M, Cichon S, Calhoun V, Ehrlich S. (2013): A Genome-Wide Association Study Suggests Novel Loci Associated with a Schizophrenia-Related Brain-Based Phenotype. PLoS One 8:e64872.
Hickok G, Poeppel D. (2004): Dorsal and ventral streams: a framework for understanding aspects of the functional anatomy of language. Cognition 92:67-99.
Hickok G, Poeppel D. (2007): The cortical organization of speech processing. Nat Rev Neurosci 8:393-402.
Ho BC, Andreasen NC, Nopoulos P, Arndt S, Magnotta V, Flaum M. (2003): Progressive structural brain abnormalities and their relationship to clinical outcome: a longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study early in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 60:585-594.
Honey CJ, Sporns O, Cammoun L, Gigandet X, Thiran JP, Meuli R, Hagmann P. (2009): Predicting human resting-state functional connectivity from structural connectivity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:2035-2040.
Hoptman MJ, Nierenberg J, Bertisch HC, Catalano D, Ardekani BA, Branch CA, Delisi LE. (2008): A DTI study of white matter microstructure in individuals at high genetic risk for schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 106:115-124.
Hsu YC, Hsu CH, Tseng WY. (2012a): A large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping solution for diffusion spectrum imaging datasets. Neuroimage 63:818-834.
Hsu YC, Hsu CH, Tseng WY. 2012b. Template estimation for a group of DSI datasets using LDDMM. In Proceedings of the 20th Annual Meeting of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Melbourne, Australia, May 5-11, 2012.
Hubl D, Koenig T, Strik W, Federspiel A, Kreis R, Boesch C, Maier SE, Schroth G, Lovblad K, Dierks T. (2004): Pathways that make voices: white matter changes in auditory hallucinations. Arch Gen Psychiatry 61:658-668.
Hwu HG, Chen CH, Hwang TJ, Liu CM, Cheng JJ, Lin SK, Liu SK, Chi YY, Ou-Young CW, Lin HN, Chen WJ. (2002): Symptom patterns and subgrouping of schizophrenic patients: significance of negative symptoms assessed on admission. Schizophr Res 56:105-119.
Innocenti GM, Ansermet F, Parnas J. (2003): Schizophrenia, neurodevelopment and corpus callosum. Mol Psychiatry 8:261-274.
Jaaro-Peled H, Hayashi-Takagi A, Seshadri S, Kamiya A, Brandon NJ, Sawa A. (2009): Neurodevelopmental mechanisms of schizophrenia: understanding disturbed postnatal brain maturation through neuregulin-1-ErbB4 and DISC1. Trends Neurosci 32:485-495.
Johansen-Berg H, Rushworth MF. (2009): Using diffusion imaging to study human connectional anatomy. Annu Rev Neurosci 32:75-94.
Kamagata K, Motoi Y, Tomiyama H, Abe O, Ito K, Shimoji K, Suzuki M, Hori M, Nakanishi A, Sano T, Kuwatsuru R, Sasai K, Aoki S, Hattori N. (2013): Relationship between cognitive impairment and white-matter alteration in Parkinson''s disease with dementia: tract-based spatial statistics and tract-specific analysis. Eur Radiol 23:1946-1955.
Kanaan RA, Kim JS, Kaufmann WE, Pearlson GD, Barker GJ, McGuire PK. (2005): Diffusion tensor imaging in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry 58:921-929.
Karlsgodt KH, Glahn DC, van Erp TG, Therman S, Huttunen M, Manninen M, Kaprio J, Cohen MS, Lonnqvist J, Cannon TD. (2007): The relationship between performance and fMRI signal during working memory in patients with schizophrenia, unaffected co-twins, and control subjects. Schizophr Res 89:191-197.
Kay SR, Fiszbein A, Opler LA. (1987): The positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 13:261-276.
Keshavan MS, Schooler NR, Sweeney JA, Haas GL, Pettegrew JW. (1998): Research and treatment strategies in first-episode psychoses. The Pittsburgh experience. Br J Psychiatry Suppl 172:60-65.
Knochel C, O''Dwyer L, Alves G, Reinke B, Magerkurth J, Rotarska-Jagiela A, Prvulovic D, Hampel H, Linden DE, Oertel-Knochel V. (2012): Association between white matter fiber integrity and subclinical psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia patients and unaffected relatives. Schizophr Res 140:129-135.
Kubicki M, Alvarado JL, Westin CF, Tate DF, Markant D, Terry DP, Whitford TJ, De Siebenthal J, Bouix S, McCarley RW, Kikinis R, Shenton ME. (2011): Stochastic tractography study of Inferior Frontal Gyrus anatomical connectivity in schizophrenia. Neuroimage 55:1657-1664.
Kubicki M, McCarley RW, Nestor PG, Huh T, Kikinis R, Shenton ME, Wible CG. (2003): An fMRI study of semantic processing in men with schizophrenia. Neuroimage 20:1923-1933.
Kubicki M, Westin CF, Maier SE, Frumin M, Nestor PG, Salisbury DF, Kikinis R, Jolesz FA, McCarley RW, Shenton ME. (2002a): Uncinate fasciculus findings in schizophrenia: a magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging study. Am J Psychiatry 159:813-820.
Kubicki M, Westin CF, Maier SE, Mamata H, Frumin M, Ersner-Hershfield H, Kikinis R, Jolesz FA, McCarley R, Shenton ME. (2002b): Diffusion tensor imaging and its application to neuropsychiatric disorders. Harv Rev Psychiatry 10:324-336.
Kubota M, Miyata J, Sasamoto A, Sugihara G, Yoshida H, Kawada R, Fujimoto S, Tanaka Y, Sawamoto N, Fukuyama H, Takahashi H, Murai T. (2013): Thalamocortical disconnection in the orbitofrontal region associated with cortical thinning in schizophrenia. JAMA Psychiatry 70:12-21.
Kunimatsu N, Aoki S, Kunimatsu A, Abe O, Yamada H, Masutani Y, Kasai K, Yamasue H, Ohtomo K. (2012): Tract-specific analysis of white matter integrity disruption in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res 201:136-143.
Kuo LW, Chen JH, Wedeen VJ, Tseng WY. (2008): Optimization of diffusion spectrum imaging and q-ball imaging on clinical MRI system. Neuroimage 41:7-18.
Kuperberg GR, Deckersbach T, Holt DJ, Goff D, West WC. (2007): Increased temporal and prefrontal activity in response to semantic associations in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 64:138-151.
Leboyer M, Bellivier F, Nosten-Bertrand M, Jouvent R, Pauls D, Mallet J. (1998): Psychiatric genetics: search for phenotypes. Trends Neurosci 21:102-105.
Lee SH, Kubicki M, Asami T, Seidman LJ, Goldstein JM, Mesholam-Gately RI, McCarley RW, Shenton ME. (2013): Extensive white matter abnormalities in patients with first-episode schizophrenia: a Diffusion Tensor Iimaging (DTI) study. Schizophr Res 143:231-238.
Leitman DI, Hoptman MJ, Foxe JJ, Saccente E, Wylie GR, Nierenberg J, Jalbrzikowski M, Lim KO, Javitt DC. (2007): The neural substrates of impaired prosodic detection in schizophrenia and its sensorial antecedents. Am J Psychiatry 164:474-482.
Lenzenweger MF. (2013): Endophenotype, intermediate phenotype, biomarker: definitions, concept comparisons, clarifications. Depress Anxiety 30:185-189.
Leow AD, Zhu S, Zhan L, McMahon K, de Zubicaray GI, Meredith M, Wright MJ, Toga AW, Thompson PM. (2009): The tensor distribution function. Magn Reson Med 61:205-214.
Li X, Branch CA, DeLisi LE. (2009): Language pathway abnormalities in schizophrenia: a review of fMRI and other imaging studies. Curr Opin Psychiatry 22:131-139.
Lim KO, Helpern JA. (2002): Neuropsychiatric applications of DTI - a review. NMR Biomed 15:587-593.
Liu CM, Hwu HG, Fann CS, Lin CY, Liu YL, Ou-Yang WC, Lee SF. (2005): Linkage evidence of schizophrenia to loci near neuregulin 1 gene on chromosome 8p21 in Taiwanese families. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 134B:79-83.
Lo YC, Chou TL, Fan LY, Gau SSF, Chiu YN, Tseng WYI. (2013): Altered structure-function relations of semantic processing in youths with high-functioning autism: A combined diffusion and functional MRI study. Autism Research [in press].
Lo YC, Soong WT, Gau SS, Wu YY, Lai MC, Yeh FC, Chiang WY, Kuo LW, Jaw FS, Tseng WY. (2011): The loss of asymmetry and reduced interhemispheric connectivity in adolescents with autism: a study using diffusion spectrum imaging tractography. Psychiatry Res 192:60-66.
Loberg EM, Jorgensen HA, Hugdahl K. (2004): Dichotic listening in schizophrenic patients: effects of previous vs. ongoing auditory hallucinations. Psychiatry Res 128:167-174.
Mandl RC, Schnack HG, Luigjes J, van den Heuvel MP, Cahn W, Kahn RS, Hulshoff Pol HE. (2010): Tract-based analysis of magnetization transfer ratio and diffusion tensor imaging of the frontal and frontotemporal connections in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 36:778-787.
Marenco S, Stein JL, Savostyanova AA, Sambataro F, Tan HY, Goldman AL, Verchinski BA, Barnett AS, Dickinson D, Apud JA, Callicott JH, Meyer-Lindenberg A, Weinberger DR. (2012): Investigation of anatomical thalamo-cortical connectivity and FMRI activation in schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology 37:499-507.
Mathalon DH, Ford JM, Pfefferbaum A. (2000): Trait and state aspects of P300 amplitude reduction in schizophrenia: a retrospective longitudinal study. Biol Psychiatry 47:434-449.
McIntosh AM, Moorhead TW, Job D, Lymer GK, Munoz Maniega S, McKirdy J, Sussmann JE, Baig BJ, Bastin ME, Porteous D, Evans KL, Johnstone EC, Lawrie SM, Hall J. (2008): The effects of a neuregulin 1 variant on white matter density and integrity. Mol Psychiatry 13:1054-1059.
McIntosh AR. (2000): Towards a network theory of cognition. Neural Netw 13:861-870.
Melonakos ED, Shenton ME, Rathi Y, Terry DP, Bouix S, Kubicki M. (2011): Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies in schizophrenia-can white matter changes be reliably detected with VBM? Psychiatry Res 193:65-70.
Minami T, Nobuhara K, Okugawa G, Takase K, Yoshida T, Sawada S, Ha-Kawa S, Ikeda K, Kinoshita T. (2003): Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging of disruption of regional white matter in schizophrenia. Neuropsychobiology 47:141-145.
Mori S, van Zijl PC. (2002): Fiber tracking: principles and strategies - a technical review. NMR Biomed 15:468-480.
Mori T, Ohnishi T, Hashimoto R, Nemoto K, Moriguchi Y, Noguchi H, Nakabayashi T, Hori H, Harada S, Saitoh O, Matsuda H, Kunugi H. (2007): Progressive changes of white matter integrity in schizophrenia revealed by diffusion tensor imaging. Psychiatry Res 154:133-145.
Mueser KT, McGurk SR. (2004): Schizophrenia. Lancet 363:2063-2072.
Niogi SN, Mukherjee P, McCandliss BD. (2007): Diffusion tensor imaging segmentation of white matter structures using a Reproducible Objective Quantification Scheme (ROQS). Neuroimage 35:166-174.
Nucifora PG, Verma R, Lee SK, Melhem ER. (2007): Diffusion-tensor MR imaging and tractography: exploring brain microstructure and connectivity. Radiology 245:367-384.
Nurnberger JI, Jr., Blehar MC, Kaufmann CA, York-Cooler C, Simpson SG, Harkavy-Friedman J, Severe JB, Malaspina D, Reich T. (1994): Diagnostic interview for genetic studies. Rationale, unique features, and training. NIMH Genetics Initiative. Arch Gen Psychiatry 51:849-859; discussion 863-844.
Ogawa S, Lee TM, Nayak AS, Glynn P. (1990): Oxygenation-sensitive contrast in magnetic resonance image of rodent brain at high magnetic fields. Magn Reson Med 14:68-78.
Oldfield RC. (1971): The assessment and analysis of handedness: the Edinburgh inventory. Neuropsychologia 9:97-113.
Peters BD, de Haan L, Dekker N, Blaas J, Becker HE, Dingemans PM, Akkerman EM, Majoie CB, van Amelsvoort T, den Heeten GJ, Linszen DH. (2008): White matter fibertracking in first-episode schizophrenia, schizoaffective patients and subjects at ultra-high risk of psychosis. Neuropsychobiology 58:19-28.
Peters BD, Karlsgodt KH. (2015): White matter development in the early stages of psychosis. Schizophr Res 161:61-69.
Pflueger MO, Gschwandtner U, Stieglitz RD, Riecher-Rossler A. (2007): Neuropsychological deficits in individuals with an at risk mental state for psychosis - working memory as a potential trait marker. Schizophr Res 97:14-24.
Phillips OR, Nuechterlein KH, Clark KA, Hamilton LS, Asarnow RF, Hageman NS, Toga AW, Narr KL. (2009): Fiber tractography reveals disruption of temporal lobe white matter tracts in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 107:30-38.
Powell HW, Parker GJ, Alexander DC, Symms MR, Boulby PA, Wheeler-Kingshott CA, Barker GJ, Noppeney U, Koepp MJ, Duncan JS. (2006): Hemispheric asymmetries in language-related pathways: a combined functional MRI and tractography study. Neuroimage 32:388-399.
Propper RE, O''Donnell LJ, Whalen S, Tie Y, Norton IH, Suarez RO, Zollei L, Radmanesh A, Golby AJ. (2010): A combined fMRI and DTI examination of functional language lateralization and arcuate fasciculus structure: Effects of degree versus direction of hand preference. Brain Cogn 73:85-92.
Razafimandimby A, Maiza O, Herve PY, Lecardeur L, Delamillieure P, Brazo P, Mazoyer B, Tzourio-Mazoyer N, Dollfus S. (2007): Stability of functional language lateralization over time in schizophrenia patients. Schizophr Res 94:197-206.
Razafimandimby A, Tzourio-Mazoyer N, Mazoyer B, Maiza O, Dollfus S. (2011): Language lateralization in left-handed patients with schizophrenia. Neuropsychologia 49:313-319.
Reese TG, Heid O, Weisskoff RM, Wedeen VJ. (2003): Reduction of eddy-current-induced distortion in diffusion MRI using a twice-refocused spin echo. Magn Reson Med 49:177-182.
Reis Marques T, Taylor H, Chaddock C, Dell''acqua F, Handley R, Reinders AA, Mondelli V, Bonaccorso S, Diforti M, Simmons A, David AS, Murray RM, Pariante CM, Kapur S, Dazzan P. (2014): White matter integrity as a predictor of response to treatment in first episode psychosis. Brain 137:172-182.
Rilling JK, Glasser MF, Preuss TM, Ma X, Zhao T, Hu X, Behrens TE. (2008): The evolution of the arcuate fasciculus revealed with comparative DTI. Nat Neurosci 11:426-428.
Rocklage SM, Moseley ME, Kucharczyk J, Norman D, Quay SC. (1990): Early detection of perfusion deficits caused by regional cerebral ischemia in cats. T2-weighted magnetic susceptibility MRI using a nonionic dysprosium contrast agent. Invest Radiol 25 Suppl 1:S37-38.
Rosenberger G, Kubicki M, Nestor PG, Connor E, Bushell GB, Markant D, Niznikiewicz M, Westin CF, Kikinis R, A JS, McCarley RW, Shenton ME. (2008): Age-related deficits in fronto-temporal connections in schizophrenia: a diffusion tensor imaging study. Schizophr Res 102:181-188.
Rossell SL, Bullmore ET, Williams SC, David AS. (2001): Brain activation during automatic and controlled processing of semantic relations: a priming experiment using lexical-decision. Neuropsychologia 39:1167-1176.
Sadock BJ, Sadock VA. 2007. Kaplan and Sadock''s Synopsis of Psychiatry: Behavioral Sciences/Clinical Psychiatry 10th ed: Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p 467.
Saur D, Kreher BW, Schnell S, Kummerer D, Kellmeyer P, Vry MS, Umarova R, Musso M, Glauche V, Abel S, Huber W, Rijntjes M, Hennig J, Weiller C. (2008): Ventral and dorsal pathways for language. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:18035-18040.
Saur D, Schelter B, Schnell S, Kratochvil D, Kupper H, Kellmeyer P, Kummerer D, Kloppel S, Glauche V, Lange R, Mader W, Feess D, Timmer J, Weiller C. (2010): Combining functional and anatomical connectivity reveals brain networks for auditory language comprehension. Neuroimage 49:3187-3197.
Schlosser RG, Nenadic I, Wagner G, Gullmar D, von Consbruch K, Kohler S, Schultz CC, Koch K, Fitzek C, Matthews PM, Reichenbach JR, Sauer H. (2007): White matter abnormalities and brain activation in schizophrenia: a combined DTI and fMRI study. Schizophr Res 89:1-11.
Seghier ML, Josse G, Leff AP, Price CJ. (2011): Lateralization is predicted by reduced coupling from the left to right prefrontal cortex during semantic decisions on written words. Cereb Cortex 21:1519-1531.
Shergill SS, Kanaan RA, Chitnis XA, O''Daly O, Jones DK, Frangou S, Williams SC, Howard RJ, Barker GJ, Murray RM, McGuire P. (2007): A diffusion tensor imaging study of fasciculi in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 164:467-473.
Simmonite M, Bates AT, Groom MJ, Jackson GM, Hollis C, Liddle PF. (2012): Error processing-associated event-related potentials in schizophrenia and unaffected siblings. Int J Psychophysiol 84:74-79.
Smith SM, Jenkinson M, Johansen-Berg H, Rueckert D, Nichols TE, Mackay CE, Watkins KE, Ciccarelli O, Cader MZ, Matthews PM, Behrens TE. (2006): Tract-based spatial statistics: voxelwise analysis of multi-subject diffusion data. Neuroimage 31:1487-1505.
Sommer IE, Ramsey NF, Kahn RS. (2001): Language lateralization in schizophrenia, an fMRI study. Schizophr Res 52:57-67.
Sommer IE, Ramsey NF, Mandl RC, Kahn RS. (2003): Language lateralization in female patients with schizophrenia: an fMRI study. Schizophr Res 60:183-190.
Song SK, Sun SW, Ju WK, Lin SJ, Cross AH, Neufeld AH. (2003): Diffusion tensor imaging detects and differentiates axon and myelin degeneration in mouse optic nerve after retinal ischemia. Neuroimage 20:1714-1722.
Sporns O. (2013): Structure and function of complex brain networks. Dialogues Clin Neurosci 15:247-262.
Stefansson H, Sigurdsson E, Steinthorsdottir V, Bjornsdottir S, Sigmundsson T, Ghosh S, Brynjolfsson J, Gunnarsdottir S, Ivarsson O, Chou TT, Hjaltason O, Birgisdottir B, Jonsson H, Gudnadottir VG, Gudmundsdottir E, Bjornsson A, Ingvarsson B, Ingason A, Sigfusson S, Hardardottir H, Harvey RP, Lai D, Zhou M, Brunner D, Mutel V, Gonzalo A, Lemke G, Sainz J, Johannesson G, Andresson T, Gudbjartsson D, Manolescu A, Frigge ML, Gurney ME, Kong A, Gulcher JR, Petursson H, Stefansson K. (2002): Neuregulin 1 and susceptibility to schizophrenia. Am J Hum Genet 71:877-892.
Swartz MS, Perkins DO, Stroup TS, Davis SM, Capuano G, Rosenheck RA, Reimherr F, McGee MF, Keefe RS, McEvoy JP, Hsiao JK, Lieberman JA. (2007): Effects of antipsychotic medications on psychosocial functioning in patients with chronic schizophrenia: findings from the NIMH CATIE study. Am J Psychiatry 164:428-436.
Takagi T, Nakamura M, Yamada M, Hikishima K, Momoshima S, Fujiyoshi K, Shibata S, Okano HJ, Toyama Y, Okano H. (2009): Visualization of peripheral nerve degeneration and regeneration: monitoring with diffusion tensor tractography. Neuroimage 44:884-892.
Tan HY, Callicott JH, Weinberger DR. (2008): Intermediate phenotypes in schizophrenia genetics redux: is it a no brainer? Mol Psychiatry 13:233-238.
Tang PF, Ko YH, Luo ZA, Yeh FC, Chen SH, Tseng WY. (2010): Tract-specific and region of interest analysis of corticospinal tract integrity in subcortical ischemic stroke: reliability and correlation with motor function of affected lower extremity. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 31:1023-1030.
Thomason ME, Thompson PM. (2011): Diffusion imaging, white matter, and psychopathology. Annu Rev Clin Psychol 7:63-85.
Tournier JD, Calamante F, Connelly A. (2007): Robust determination of the fibre orientation distribution in diffusion MRI: non-negativity constrained super-resolved spherical deconvolution. Neuroimage 35:1459-1472.
Tuch DS. (2004): Q-ball imaging. Magn Reson Med 52:1358-1372.
Tuch DS, Reese TG, Wiegell MR, Wedeen VJ. (2003): Diffusion MRI of complex neural architecture. Neuron 40:885-895.
Turner JA, Smyth P, Macciardi F, Fallon JH, Kennedy JL, Potkin SG. (2006): Imaging Phenotypes and Genotypes in Schizophrenia. Neuroinformatics 4:21-50.
van Beveren NJ, Buitendijk GH, Swagemakers S, Krab LC, Roder C, de Haan L, van der Spek P, Elgersma Y. (2012): Marked reduction of AKT1 expression and deregulation of AKT1-associated pathways in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of schizophrenia patients. PLoS One 7:e32618.
van den Heuvel MP, Fornito A. (2014): Brain Networks in Schizophrenia. Neuropsychol Rev.
van Os J, Rutten BP, Poulton R. (2008): Gene-environment interactions in schizophrenia: review of epidemiological findings and future directions. Schizophr Bull 34:1066-1082.
Vandervliet EJ, Verhoeven J, Engelborghs S, De Deyn PP, Parizel PM, Marien P. (2008): FMRI findings in an aphasic patient with reversed cerebral dominance for language. Acta Neurol Belg 108:161-166.
Vernooij MW, Smits M, Wielopolski PA, Houston GC, Krestin GP, van der Lugt A. (2007): Fiber density asymmetry of the arcuate fasciculus in relation to functional hemispheric language lateralization in both right- and left-handed healthy subjects: a combined fMRI and DTI study. Neuroimage 35:1064-1076.
Wakana S, Jiang H, Nagae-Poetscher LM, van Zijl PC, Mori S. (2004): Fiber tract-based atlas of human white matter anatomy. Radiology 230:77-87.
Walder DJ, Seidman LJ, Cullen N, Su J, Tsuang MT, Goldstein JM. (2006): Sex differences in language dysfunction in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 163:470-477.
Walder DJ, Seidman LJ, Makris N, Tsuang MT, Kennedy DN, Goldstein JM. (2007): Neuroanatomic substrates of sex differences in language dysfunction in schizophrenia: a pilot study. Schizophr Res 90:295-301.
Walsh J, Tighe O, Lai D, Harvey R, Karayiorgou M, Gogos JA, Waddington JL, O''Tuathaigh CM. (2010): Disruption of thermal nociceptive behaviour in mice mutant for the schizophrenia-associated genes NRG1, COMT and DISC1. Brain Res 1348:114-119.
Wedeen VJ, Hagmann P, Tseng WY, Reese TG, Weisskoff RM. (2005): Mapping complex tissue architecture with diffusion spectrum magnetic resonance imaging. Magn Reson Med 54:1377-1386.
Wedeen VJ, Wang RP, Schmahmann JD, Benner T, Tseng WY, Dai G, Pandya DN, Hagmann P, D''Arceuil H, de Crespigny AJ. (2008): Diffusion spectrum magnetic resonance imaging (DSI) tractography of crossing fibers. Neuroimage 41:1267-1277.
Weiller C, Bormann T, Saur D, Musso M, Rijntjes M. (2011): How the ventral pathway got lost: and what its recovery might mean. Brain Lang 118:29-39.
Weiss EM, Hofer A, Golaszewski S, Siedentopf C, Felber S, Fleischhacker WW. (2006): Language lateralization in unmedicated patients during an acute episode of schizophrenia: a functional MRI study. Psychiatry Res 146:185-190.
Wernicke C. (1874): Der aphasische Symptomenkomplex: Eine psychologische Studie auf anatomischer Basis. Breslau: Cohn und Welgert.
Whalley HC, Papmeyer M, Sprooten E, Lawrie SM, Sussmann JE, McIntosh AM. (2012): Review of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies comparing bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Bipolar Disord 14:411-431.
Wu CY, Ho MH, Chen SH. (2012): A meta-analysis of fMRI studies on Chinese orthographic, phonological, and semantic processing. Neuroimage 63:381-391.
Yeh FC, Wedeen VJ, Tseng WY. (2010): Generalized q-sampling imaging. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 29:1626-1635.
Yeh FC, Wedeen VJ, Tseng WY. (2011): Estimation of fiber orientation and spin density distribution by diffusion deconvolution. Neuroimage 55:1054-1062.
Yu Y, Shen H, Zhang H, Zeng LL, Xue Z, Hu D. (2013): Functional connectivity-based signatures of schizophrenia revealed by multiclass pattern analysis of resting-state fMRI from schizophrenic patients and their healthy siblings. Biomed Eng Online 12:10.
Zhang X, Li B, Shan B. (2014): Age-related white matter degradation rule of normal human brain: the evidence from diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. Chin Med J (Engl) 127:532-537.
Zhang Y, Zhang J, Oishi K, Faria AV, Jiang H, Li X, Akhter K, Rosa-Neto P, Pike GB, Evans A, Toga AW, Woods R, Mazziotta JC, Miller MI, van Zijl PC, Mori S. (2010): Atlas-guided tract reconstruction for automated and comprehensive examination of the white matter anatomy. Neuroimage 52:1289-1301.

QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關點閱論文