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研究生:邱靖詠
研究生(外文):Jing-Yong Qiu
論文名稱:於加密音訊上藉由高次平滑判斷的可逆資訊隱藏技術
論文名稱(外文):Reversible Data Hiding for Encrypted Audios by High Order Smoothness
指導教授:吳家麟
指導教授(外文):Ja-Ling Wu
口試委員:陳文進鄭文皇林育慈
口試日期:2015-06-18
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:資訊網路與多媒體研究所
學門:電算機學門
學類:網路學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:英文
論文頁數:21
中文關鍵詞:可逆資訊隱藏技術加密音訊高次平滑
外文關鍵詞:reversible data hidingencrypted audiohigh order smoothness
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此篇論文呈現了實作在加密音訊上的可逆資訊隱藏技術,且此技術奠基於一個新的情境架構。在該情境中,資訊隱藏者在無法取得原始內容的情況下,將額外資訊嵌入已加密媒體中。接收者收到該檔案後若有事先溝通好的解密金鑰,可解密得到一份與原始內容非常相近的媒體。若其還有事先溝通好的資訊隱藏金鑰,則可再抽取出嵌在其中的額外資訊並將該媒體還原至最原始的狀態。
現存的媒體有很多種,最近幾年有人提出了針對加密圖片的資訊隱藏技術。但由於人耳對於聲音訊號較人眼對於影像訊號更為敏感,此篇論文採用更高次的平滑判斷方法,且讓原始檔案擁有者在加密前計算出之後還原媒體時會利用到的一些(旁)資訊。這兩個機制讓初步解密出來的媒體具有非常小的失真,更重要的是之後仍然可百分之百還原該媒體。

This work presents a reversible data hiding method on encrypted audio files, where a data-hider, having no knowledge about the original content, tries to embed some additional data into the encrypted version of the content which was distributed from the content owner. A legal receiver, with the pre-negotiated decrypted key, can decrypt the encrypted content and get nearly the same version of the original medium. Moreover, if he/she has the pre-negotiated data-hiding key, the embedded data can be extracted, and therefore, the medium can be totally recovered. There are many kinds of media and some works targeting on hiding data into encrypted images have been proposed recently. Since human''s auditory system is more sensitive than human''s visual system, we apply a high order smoothness measurement to maintain the naturalness of a sound and let the content owner pre-calculate some necessary information for sound recovery, before encryption. With these two mechanisms, this work produces stego-audios of small quality degradation and has the capability to recover the original audios with zero error rate.

致謝 i
摘要 ii
Abstract iii
Contents iv
List of Figures vi
List of Tables vii
1 Introduction 1
2 Scheme and Algorithm 4
2.1 Content Owner Side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.1.1 NBI Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.1.2 Audio Encryption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.1.3 NBI Embedding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.2 Data Hider Side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.2.1 NBI Extraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.2.2 Data Embedding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.3 Receiver Side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.3.1 NBI Extraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.3.2 Audio Decryption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.3.3 Audio Recovery from the corrupt version embedded with NBI . . 11
2.3.4 Data Extraction and Audio Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3 Experiment 13
3.1 Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.2 Experimental Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.3 Result . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.4 Tests on music database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4 Conclusion 19
Bibliography 20

[1] X. Zhang. Reversible data hiding in encrypted images. IEEE Signal Process. Lett., 18(4):255–258, 2011.
[2] J. M. Barton. Method and apparatus for embedding authentication information within digital data. U.S. Patent 5646997, 1997.
[3] J. Tian. Reversible data embedding using a difference expansion. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, 13(8):90–93, Aug. 2003.
[4] D. M. Thodi and J. J. Rodriguez. Expansion embedding techniques for reversible watermarking. IEEE Trans. Image Process., (3):721–730, Mar. 2007.
[5] D. Q. Yan and R. D. Wang. Reversible data hiding for audio based on prediction error expansion. Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing, pages 249–252, 2008.
[6] N. Ansari Z. C. Ni, Y. Q. Shi and W. Su. Reversible data hiding. IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol., 16(3):354–362, May 2006.
[7] C. M. Yeh W. L. Tai and C. C. Chang. Reversible data hiding based on histogram modification of pixel differences. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, 19(6):906–910, Jun. 2009.
[8] Z. Xie F. Wang and Z. Chen. High capacity reversible watermarking for audio by histogram shifting and predicted error expansion. The Scientific World Journal, 2014(656251), 2014.
[9] I. Echizen X. Huang and A. Nishimura. A new approach of reversible acoustic steganography for tampering detection. Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing, pages 538–542, 2010.
[10] Y. Jiao M. Li and X. Niu. Reversible watermarking for compressed speech. Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing, pages 197–201, 2008.
[11] T. Nishimura M. Goto, H. Hashiguchi and R. Oka. Rwc music database: Music genre database and musical instrument sound database. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Music Information Retrieval (ISMIR), pages 229–230, 2003.
[12] Voicebox: Speech processing toolbox for matlab. http://www.ee.ic.ac.uk/hp/staff/ dmb/voicebox/voicebox.html.
[13] P. Kabal. An examination and interpretation of itu-r bs.1387: Perceptual evaluation of audio quality. TSP Lab Technical Report, Dept. Electrical & Computer Engineering, McGill University, pages 1–89, 2002.

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