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研究生:李瀚霆
研究生(外文):Han-ting Li
論文名稱:鷹架理論在高職英語聽力教學的應用
論文名稱(外文):The Effects of Scaffolding Activities on English Listening Comprehension of Vocational High School Students in Taiwan
指導教授:陳献忠陳献忠引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shian-jung Chen
口試委員:陳献忠
口試委員(外文):Shian-jung Chen
口試日期:2014-10-20
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣科技大學
系所名稱:應用外語系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:103
語文別:英文
論文頁數:99
中文關鍵詞:音節計拍語言重音計拍語言根據啟動效應的鷹架學習根據生成訓練的鷹架學習
外文關鍵詞:syllable-timing languagestress-timing languagepriming-based scaffoldingproduction-based scaffolding
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中文與英文分屬於不同的語言類型,中文是音節計拍語言,而英文是重音計拍語言,唸一句中文所花的時間因音節數不同而異,相對的,唸一句英文所花的時間因重音數不同而異,換句話說,以中文為母語的人習慣唸一個句子的時候每個字份量差不多,他們的耳朵也習慣要去抓住每個字音,因為它們份量差不多,初學英文,這種聽力習慣帶到聽英文的活動,自然吃虧很大。他們在聽英文的時候,希望抓住每個字迫使他們只會採用由下而上的訊息處理,忽略了抓住大意的重要性;希望抓住每個字也讓他們的注意力分散,聽英文變得很緊張反而容易錯過關鍵字。本研究主要的目的在設法改掉學生的這兩種聽力習慣,希望能有效的改善學生的聽力,因此引進兩種鷹架學習方法到聽力課:第一種為根據啟動效應的鷹架學習,第二種為根據生成訓練的鷹架學習。
本文研究者在研究過程中以各有35位高職學生的實驗組與對照組進行聽力教學,實驗組的聽力教學採用上述的兩種鷹架教學活動,對照組則進行傳統的聽力教學。經過十二周的教學,實驗組的學生聽力與對照組的學生比較起來有明顯進步,實驗後的問卷和與學生面談的結果也顯示學生對類似聽力教學活動表示歡迎,他們大多數覺得類似的活動對於他們的聽力訓練有幫助。此外,本研究指出學生在進行聽力活動時常見的問題,並提出可行的解決方法。因此,透過此分析,英文教師在設計聽力教學活動時,可以排除可能影響學生聽力的因素,也能提供他們所需要的協助,來增進英語聽力。希望本研究能對未來的相關研究做出貢獻。
Unlike Chinese, a syllable-timing language whose sentences have almost equal timing for each monosyllable or character, English is a stress-timing language so that the time spent in reading a sentence is determined by the number of stresses it has. When a native Chinese speaker first learns English or a low achieving English learner is working on how to improve listening, two things would hinder the progress — first, only bottom-up processing is used; second, the learner is stuck with a deep-rooted habit of trying to capture every word while listening. Aiming to help overcome these two obstacles, this study introduces two types of scaffolding, namely priming-based scaffolding and production-based scaffolding, to be used in teaching listening in English.
In the study, the researcher conducted an experiment with an experiment group of 35 vocational high school students in Taipei for twelve weeks, using both types of scaffolding in listening classes, and also had a class of 35 students as the control group taught in traditional manner. Both pre- and post-tests are used to measure students' English proficiency to form the basis for comparison and listening tests have been employed to find out the effects of the scaffolding activities. The experiment shows encouraging results in the learning of English listening skills for the experiment group and the follow-up questionnaires and interviews indicate that most students find the scaffolding useful and feel that now they have found some concrete ways to improve their listening skills in English. In addition, this research points out common problems that students have in listening tasks and provides possible solutions. Therefore, when designing listening activities, via the analysis of the problems in listening, English teachers can eliminate the factors that might influence students' listening comprehension and provide the assistance they need to enhance their comprehension as well. It is hoped that the findings and suggestions of this study can make contributions to the future research in this field.
ABSTRACT (Chinese) ............................................................................................................i
ABSTRACT (English) ............................................................................................................ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ...................................................................................................iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................................................v
LIST OF TABLES ................................................................................................................viii
LIST OF FIGURES ................................................................................................................ix

Chapter One: Introduction ....................................................................................................1
1.1 Background and motivation of the study..........................................................................1
1.2 Purpose of the study.........................................................................................................3
1.3 Research questions.......................................................................................................... 4
1.4 Significance of the study..................................................................................................4
1.5 Definition of the study......................................................................................................5
1.6 Organization of the study ................................................................................................7

Chapter Two: Literature Review .......................................................................................... 8
2.1 The nature of listening ……………………………………………………………........ 8
2.2 Listening processing ………………………………………………………………....... 9
2.2.1 Top-down processing ………………………………………………………..........10
2.2.2 Bottom-up processing ………………………………………………………….... 11
2.2.3 Interactive processing ………………………………………………………........ 12
2.2.4 Chunking, tone unit, and pauses ............................................................................ 13
2.2.5 Stress and English as a stress-timing language ......................................................14
2.3 Scaffolding ……………...........…………………………………………………….....15
2.3.1 Concepts and pedagogical implications .................................................................16
2.3.2 Origins and further understanding of scaffolding ................................................. 17
2.3.3 Related research and on scaffolding in language instruction .................................19
2.3.4 Advantages and disadvantages of scaffolding ........................................................21
2.3.5 Production-based scaffolding activities ..................................................................22
2.4 The priming effect ………………………………………………………………….... 23
2.5 Priming-based scaffolding activities ............................................................................ 24
2.5.1 Advance organizer ................................................................................................. 24
2.5.2 Background knowledge pre-listening instruction .................................................. 25
2.5.2.1 Schema theory ……………………………….....……………..……………..25
2.5.2.2 The effects of background knowledge on L2 listening …….……………......26
2.5.2.3 Enhanced background knowledge pre-listening instruction …….…………..30
2.5.3 Key vocabulary pre-listening instruction ……..................................................... . 33
2.5.3.1 The role of vocabulary in listening comprehension …………………...…... . 33
2.5.3.2 The effects of vocabulary on L2 listening ...................................................... 35
2.5.3.3 Enhanced vocabulary pre-listening instruction ………………………......... . 36
2.6 Summary .......................................................................................................................39

Chapter Three: Methodology and Instruments ………………......………………….......40
3.1 Participants………………………………………………………………………........ 40
3.2 Materials and instruments…………………………………………………………..... 40
3.2.1 Twelve listening passages of top-down and bottom-up………………………..... 41
3.2.2 Listening comprehension tests…………………………………………………... 42
3.2.3 Background knowledge pre-listening activities .....................................................42
3.2.4 Key vocabulary pre-listening activities ................................................................. 43
3.2.5 Chunking and word stress pre-listening activities ................................................. 44
3.2.6 Questionnaire ………………………………………………………………….... 45
3.3 Procedures………………………………………………………………………......... 46
3.4 Data analysis................................................................................................................. 48

Chapter Four: Results ……………...........…………………………………………….......50
4.1 Results of post-test …………………………………………………………...…........ 50
4.2 Results of listening comprehension tests ......................................................................51
4.3 Results of questionnaire ............................................................................................... 53
4.4 Results of interview ......................................................................................................57
4.5 Summary .......................................................................................................................64

Chapter Five: Discussion and Conclusion …...............……………………………….......65
5.1 Summary of the study ...................................................................................................65
5.2 Discussion of the results ...............................................................................................66
5.3 Implications of the study .............................................................................................. 71
5.4 Limitations of the study ................................................................................................72
5.5 Conclusion ....................................................................................................................73

REFERENCES ..................................................................................................................... 74
APPENDICES .......................................................................................................................82
Appendix I Questionnaire ...................................................................................................... 82
Appendix II Worksheets of background knowledge ...............................................................84
Appendix III Worksheets of key vocabulary .......................................................................... 88
Appendix IV Worksheets of chunking ................................................................................... 92
Appendix V Worksheets of chunking & word stress ..............................................................96
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